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History of USA - Part 2

A little while ago America was compiling the list of each year, the list of new millionaires. In those days that was the American goal. As the best part of the population is moving towards it without any conscious effort on their part, no longer it remained an ardent objective. Now family is effectively destroyed and dissolved for those who are young. Having come out of the parental home and deciding NOT to acquire a family, he lives with various women giving no chance to life for divorce. He is all-alone, whether lonely or not. Now his one goal is Happy Home. In search of this he seeks the women he has earlier divorced, prepares himself not to see her shortcomings, becomes introspective focussing on his own shortcomings. His own children, if any, have no use for him. Nor do they need his guidance which was never on the horizon. What is his God now, he wonders.

  • God, for man, is always the unattainable.
  • He seeks the happiness that eludes all. That he designates as his God.
  • God is not happiness, as happiness is a goal of the lower vital.
  • The rising standard of living that was his God earlier is now replaced by the elusive human happiness. Whatever he may term as God, is not what religious describe as God, but it is his social goal. Occasionally it is his psychological goal.
  • At different periods God was different things to different people. But in all the cases it is one more step in life.
  • For the totalitarian state as well as America the value of electricity is the same. It is not true of electricity only. It is true of organisation, values, strategies, laws of life and all such basic truths. To evolve a Theory based on such things is our endeavour.

- America is a vast expanse of natural potential. Daring men got into the larger rhythm and achieved infinitely.

  • By 1915 the Hollywood pay roll was already $20 million annually.
  • The same year a movie a day was turned out in it.
  • All the movie tycoons conformed to a pattern. They were poor, often desperately poor, came from families of 10,12 children.
  • Laemmle worked as clerk, book-keeper, store manager and created a movie distribution business, founded the first big studio, the Universal.
  • Marus loew sold paper, worked in printing, furs, independent fur broker, twice bankrupted before 30, founded a theatre chain, and finally put together Metro-Goldwyn-mayer.
  • William Fox is another movie company similar to Twentieth Century Fox.

When film making started in Hollywood, the local population petitioned to evacuate it from there. Movie makers came there attracted by the cheap electricity. Sunshine and a freedom from all litigation for which Southern California was famous were the other causes. New York had over 1000 amusement arcades in 1900 while in 1890 there were none. Within two years of that petition Hollywood was paying $20 million in pay. The murmur died down.

What is this phenomenon of $ 20 million in wages in two years? How in 10 years in New York 1000 amusement arcades could sprout? What can support men on the street found world famous studios and theatres, is a question. Obviously it is not money. When we think of America and speak of the success of their various ventures, we naturally think of Money. It is the poorest of men who made Money, not that Money brought them the success. It is cheap electricity so early and in such abundance. Who made electricity so cheap and how? Turning out a movie a day can be a feat even today. If 1000 arcades come up where from they draw the audience?

  • Of course they had high wages. Again what is the source of high wages?
  • High energy is the source of high wages.
  • Explain high energy.
  • America was built by men who worked all waking house because otherwise they could not survive.
  • Sure, it is the right reason. It is the external compelling circumstances. Other men would have perished. What made them work? What was the outer and what was the inner reason?
  • Inwardly men came to survive not perish. They were determined.
  • Outwardly physical circumstances were demanding and made that determination possible and continuously necessary.
  • The Great human determination is of the Infinite inside. It was the Infinite expanse of the landscape that invited that labour.

It was the call of the outer Infinite to

which the Inner Infinite responded.

  • This atmosphere was there in agriculture, city building, entertainment, money and in every enterprise the Americans undertook.
  • Those very poor men who could hear the call and rise to the occasion rose in the society to its top, taking with them all those who worked with them. They raised the entire population of the city, of America.
  • It is a land of adventure, adventure of infinite life sought by the infinite urge inside Man. 

- Talentsare utterly divorced from values.

  • Electric microphones arrived in 1925.
  • Ultimately the attempts to write blacks out of the script was a total failure.
  • Oath taking by Coolidge in 1923.
  • Elizabeth and Coolidge believed in masterly inactivity. Both believed in silent strategies.
  • Coolidge says inspiration must always come from above.

Capacity succeeds irrespective of moral values is true, but it is qualified by the social atmosphere. Before a society ever took shape this is fully true. As the society advances, it acquires values in different fields. It varies. There are two movements. Values are valued where one is most concerned is family and self. Another is values are upheld in talk and action where it least matters. The individual, Society, the Moment interact to decide how much values will be respected. Even in 1915 America was a prosperous nation, not a nation of settled culture of fixed values. Lillian Russell was a famous beauty. She campaigned for New York Mayor on a morality platform. She was known besides her beauty for debts, multiple husbands, still more numerous lovers. Her campaigning is itself a wonder; but she did on a platform of morality. It shows how unformed the society is and how much people could listen to the value of morality from anyone. No standards of public behaviour had been acquired then. Such an event in that year might not have been possible in another country. Nowadays we witness the most corrupt politician paying lip service to clean administration as public morals have broken down. From the Theory point of view we have to underline certain facts and principles.

  • At their Origin talents and values are separate entities.
  • They can form various curious combinations regardless of the common sense expectation.
  • As the society acquires a culture and the society also acquires a compelling authority talents are subordinated to values in that measure.
  • Again a mature society can come upon a period of transition where values can give way. Then again, in that measure, talents try to surface disregarding values.

Beauty was at a premium in 1915 and is still so. In 1915 Lillian could preach morality. I believe today she would speak a different language. The one point that is striking is her moral platform. To infer from that fact the social complexion one needs to have a theoretical basis. To arrive at that basis for moral, efficiency, values and every other human trait is our endeavour in these pages. The arrival of electric microphone takes the appeal of the speaker wider. It was a technological advance. It carries the voice further. Voice can be separated from the facts spoken by the speaker. At earshot a greater scrutiny of person, facts, arguments will temper the factor of the voice. On the radio or at a distance over the microphone the quality of the voice becomes determinative. A captivating voice carries the day. That is one social function of technology. As the reach is widened NEW factors enter into the issue, as they now say enter the equation. That raises the complexity. Complexity for the unsophisticated is a complication. Complication compels the individual to narrow his choice, lean on one side. Every technological innovation carries this character. On the side of the individual every expansion of his faculties carries the same possibility. Modern days, compared with the days of 1915, have expanded the field from both sides enormously. Can we, from this distance of time and perspective pronounce on Lillian Russell. At least in theory, a theoretical understanding must give us that endowment.

The Blacks excelled in sports and in music. Races that are not yet contaminated by the development of mind enjoyed the nimbleness of the movement of the body. Their vital, the origin of music, is unencumbered by the dominating mind. The African civilisation is not a primitive one; may be it is the remnants of a lost civilisation.

- The Blacks cannot be removed from the list because what is attempted here is INTEGRATION, not perfection excluding anyone thing.

- We see the normal human attitude of deriding a thing when it is popular and seeking it when it may be of use. That is beside the point.

The swearing in of Coolidge, his attitude to life coupled with his wife's attitude to life will reveal so much of America and life if we approach them with a Mind determined to understand the laws by which those events come to occur. In 1923 America was still a nation of agriculture. In 1943 she was on the top of the world having all but conquered Hitler and Mikado and FULLY overcoming Britain, the King of seas.

  • - One thing is noticeable. America that was largely an agricultural nation in 1923, was developing industrial production and outrun all the other nations even 60 years earlier. That was in preparation. Behind that we see a similar preparation on the front of education. Above all the scientific temper of the population was spreading horizontally and intensifying vertically.
  • Nature works at all fronts simultaneously.
  • Even the most backward equipment - agriculture - when it does not shut out the latest social influence can be a tool to lead the world. Today 3% population in agriculture still leads the production in the world. What you do does not matter, how you do matters.

When President Harding died the vice-president received a telegram of it. The Attorney-General communicated with Coolidge the vice president that he should take the oath of office at once. Coolidge was on the farm far removed from the post office. He was without a phone or electricity, endowed with a copy of the family Bible and a Notary in the father who was a retired colonel. The father, being a Notary himself, administered the Oath of office himself having received it by telegram from the Attorney-General.

  • The dramatic rustic circumstances of oath taking, in the light of the fact that USA led the world in 20 years shows the distance a country can travel in those circumstances.

Today everyone in the world, particularly in India, is offered those circumstances.

  • Coolidge and his wife Elizabeth believed in passive activity, silent strategies which are masterly inactivities.
  • All those who have accomplished in the world have known the power of Silence, Silent will, not taking initiative, not parting with information out of enthusiasm and excitement believing oneself to be frank. This is a knowledge of which the Rishis have laid down the rules by their own living. Prior to that men knew it. Even animals follow those rules instinctively. Man has to rediscover them as a possession of Mind today. Generals, Presidents, CEO's of companies rose to their respective positions because of such knowledge. A still higher knowledge is the capacity NOT to prove one's rightness whether it is a theorem in Mathematics or a concept in philosophy. With the same clarity one can say there is beyond it a stage where what defied proof can be proved, of course, by lesser men. Sri Aurobindo said the same thing about great men performing miracles or desisting from it or doing both.
  • Coolidge received inspiration ALWAYS from above.

-- Andre Siegfried said America is creating a new social structure.

  • Coolidge advocated non-interference in business at a time Hitler, Mussolini, Kemal Ataturk, Ibn Saud, Chiang Kai-Shaik, Stalin and Shah of Persia were working for greater power for the state.
  • Prosperity was more widely distributed in America than anywhere else in a community of that size.
  • When more money was available, it was straight away spent on education.
  • It is hard to point out any aspect of culture in 1920 that did not mark a spectacular advance.

Social evolution can be considered in many ways. We shall see it in two perspectives. 1) Guided by its government 2) Self-guided. The question of government guiding arises when there is not much to go around and an authority is required to order a justifiable distribution. Society overflowing with energy of prosperity will find the intrusion of government a hindrance. As life admits of several more of these stages any analysis must cover all the stages.

- A law that can be comprehensive is 'Guidance should be there to further the progress and not hinder it'.

Nehru who resorted to a socialist pattern of society soon found out there must be something to be distributed and it must be produced. And he had the candour to say it. Coolidge talks from experience, not from ideology. All the leaders mentioned above from Stalin to Shah made the error that the government could make the society prosper. A basic truth is

-- A society can develop by its own aspiration. Government is too small and too cumbersome an instrument to handle the development of the society. The role of the government is after the society is developed, not before. A progressive non-corrupt government can offer people knowledge, example, guidance, demonstration and thus try to be a catalyst of development. No parent can take over the GROWTH of his own child entirely except at a great cost of warping his growth. Where is the question of a government taking on itself ? The government has no knowledge of the laws of social growth. Nor does the society have it. If it grows, it grows subconsciously. No one has all the process by which a society is growing. Assuming that Knowledge is there somewhere and a government comes to possess it, does the government have a machinery to allow those laws to operate through it? The role of the Government is to maintain law and order. Even in the area of social growth the government has a great role to play by way of various regulations. In that exercise, the government must exercise discretion not to offend the springs of social energy. A society can develop only on its own. Backward societies can receive help from their government in social growth. Even here it is NOT money that will achieve the goal. It is technology and its discrimination. Any subsidy will only arrest the growth of the society as society as any other entity will grow greedy and will NOT part with subsidies once offered whether it is legitimate or not. America is a country of entrepreneurs not a nation of capitalists. It is a misnomer. The crash of 1825 and 1929 were symptoms that an entrepreneurial society is coming under the ill effect of capitalism. It is there we need government regulation to curb the GREED of the population.

The aim of all socialism and communism is to distribute prosperity over the entire population. It is a laudable aim. Karl Marx wished the state to accept that duty. America achieved it in natural conditions all by itself. Perhaps Marx assumed the government to be wise, fair and incorruptible. As a goal it is great, but the USSR proved to be a disaster. Basic truisms here are,

- Government is a part of the society. Being a part it can serve, guide and at best regulate, but never preside over, much less dominate.

- In 1917 all over the world governments were trained to defend the borders, maintain law and order but no more. To take over the entire administration of a society, no government was ever trained. In the USSR, the government also took upon itself the entire process of production and distribution. It is this sociological fact that compelled the government in the USSR to convert itself into a police state. America has achieved inconceivable prosperity. Hereafter the question is,

  • How much of the individual freedom be curtailed?
  • Whether new social organisations are fashioning themselves to take over that responsibilities,
  • Has the phase of prosperity been over giving place to another phase of knowledge or personal inner well being.

This is not a new question to humankind. May be in prosperity, and income it is new. The issues involved are

  • Man should individually exert in freedom as in arts.
  • When all men or most men are well endowed, their work will move to the collective at a point when the collective becomes conscious.
  • Internet already has undermined ownership of knowledge or accumulation at some points.
  • Money tends to create possessiveness. Knowledge tends to dispossess itself.
  • Psychological well being is already on the horizon in a little way.
  • If that gains ground, what matters is GIVING and not TAKING.
  • Internet is offering all that is necessary to disseminate subtle knowledge indiscriminately.

Economic welfare and social organisations to monitor them may not preoccupy human mind once poverty is abolished all over the world. If it still holds its ground, it may be of secondary importance as agricultural technology and food supply are now in the west. Karl Marx has achieved in essence in 150 years what the Communist Manifesto adumbrated in 1848. Economics is necessary. With the technical tools at the disposal of the society just now, the economic necessity will largely occupy the texture of present food supply in the West. Still, for one who approaches it from the point of view of the Theory, he must pronounce on it and on agriculture too.

-- The Theory must pronounce on the Depression.

  • It must be from a wider point of view as well as justified in terms of hard facts that are minute.
  • The wider point of view is MONEY has a power of the part that can control the whole.
  • Taking it further, part ruling the whole is disaster. It can be any creation of the Society - production, protection, religion, family, MONEY, trade, entertainment.
  • If our view is right, it must be explained in terms of all the major and minor events around 1929 - the President, the economy, social thrust, prosperity, women unwilling to be pardoned, American expertise at Versailles, WWI, race riots etc.
  • To do it perfectly from the points of view of small events, we need all the information surrounding such events. E.G. If a woman refuses to be pardoned we need to know all about her. It is far fetched. For the present whatever we are able to prove can be thorough and precise.

Depression has the earliest definition of Karl Marx. He said capitalism would die its own death because it was rotten to the core inside. His view was the original capital was plundered. Capital, according to him, usurped the rightful position of the real owners who are the labourers. Capital was thus plundered, true, not in the sense Marx meant. Can we say the Americans robbed the continent from the world? It was there, they took advantage of it by adventure. A star in the movies earns fabulously. He can't be said to fleece others, especially the public. He is the successful pioneer who earned it by his efforts. Should we turn to compiling an Encyclopedia we must prepare an exhaustive list of such social phenomenon and cover all its modern expressions.

  • Nature should not be judged by social ethics of our time.
  • To judge the past by the present is not rational. Judgement interferes with understanding.
  • What Marx pronounced was a profound but partial truth. If a pronouncement can get over that partiality and represent the whole that statement will be valid.
  • Marx talked of factories and fields as means of production. They are the material means. In that sense even that phrase and idea are partial. Man is the means of production for which factories and fields are the outer material expressions.
  • Depressionwas caused by MONEY taking over all the processes of production into its power is my thesis. This hypothesis needs factual and statistical justification. Assuming it to be true, we need to establish logically that Moneycan do it and later show that Money did it.
  • If my supposition is valid, we must be able to see MONEY playing the crucial determining role in bringing about the crash. At every point of such decision making MONEY must have played that role in discussing the decision. Further in the economy recovering from Depression the reverse -- Man overcoming the role of money -- must be similarly shown with precision.
  • To prove the general validity of such a theory we must show other factors creating such a crisis in the social existence. Military is a pre-eminent factor of such a description.
  • In 1929 there was a Depression by which we mean the general prosperity of the society came down creating vast unemployment, bankruptcy of industries and misery. It only means we are evaluating the situation from an economic point of view which by any definition is partial. Also it is an economic point of view of the American nation. It is true, because by that time American economy had become a determining factor of the world economy. In the wider context, society was severely dependent on the economic structure of production and distribution created thus far. For us it is the whole context as ours is a Theory of Social evolution. We do not go beyond to biology or the existence of earth or Life of the Universe.

-- Crash needs imbalance, concentration on one side, deprivation on the other side. Page 718 says Prosperity is more widely distributed in America of the 1920s than any community of this size anywhere. It involved millions of people acquiring basic aspects of security, particularly economic security which was denied to them from the beginning of history. The longest housing boom recorded was in the decade of 1920. 11 million had their own homes.

  • Automobile made the lowest level of population mobile. A mobile population is productive as mobility is conquest of Time and Space. The rich became richer because of such advantages. Now the poor too had it.
  • Life Insurance and industrial insurance passed the million mark.
  • Savings quadrupled during the decade.

Housekeepers, clerks, factory workers, mechanics, chauffeurs, drivers, electricians, merchants, foremen owned more than 50 shares in public utilities.

  • The first priority for local governments and families for the initial surplus is education.

America is a nation Nature has prepared for some centuries to achieve in human freedom the ideal of Karl Marx's communism. Man's interpretation of Marx took the force of the existing society at its lowest level. There it served the ONE purpose to demonstrate that

No government can compel the society to develop into Prosperity.

The goal of communism is desirable and achievable but not according to the interpretation of human mind. Nor can it be done by a Government. No society constituted as it is will lend itself for this transformation as its layers are too rigid. Therefore Nature created a new society, in utter freedom, to fashion itself to fulfil the ultimate need of abundant prosperity to all, not only to the working class. Johnson says this goal of Prosperity was more than achieved. Andre says such a society is fashioned in America. Now the question is how did the depression come about in 1929, in a decade of unprecedented prosperity. The known causes of privation and unemployment are

  • Failure of monsoon
  • Over production of grains that rot in their godowns
  • Excess labour force that can find no jobs
  • Exhaustion of raw materials
  • Absence of mobility that creates scarcity in one place while there is surplus in another corner.
  • Lack of purchasing power
  • Refusal of the population to take to a new life style that alone can absorb the excess production.
  • Absence of education or unwillingness to be educated which results in superstition that stifles a booming economy.
  • Religious fanaticism that is an obstacle to progress.

In America we find not only any of these conditions, but the nation is replete with the very opposite situations. What then is the cause of the famous Depression? As we studied the favourable causes, now we must turn to the study of the negative power of Governments, military, religion, administration, finance, trade, institutions and see what exactly caused the crash of 1929.

The Great Depression is understood as an economic phenomenon and always it can be explained variously from that point of view. To look at it theoretically it is not enough. This is a partial explanation. A theoretical explanation is one from the first principles, one from the root cause or root principle. Therefore it must move from the economic field to the wider field of entire social production, better still from the entire society. 1929 was a crisis that gave birth to scarcity of every conceivable thing. A poor man is one who cannot borrow and ruin himself by debts while a rich man can borrow as much as he is worth or even more. Credit is one of the creative institutions Mind has given life. In that it is like Science, Technology, Government, Army, Industry, Agriculture and above all Money. It is an extension of the institution of Money. Much of the present society owes its existence to this institution of credit. When the best is misused or corrupts itself, Sri Aurobindo says, by the strange alchemy of life the result is not the next best but the worst. To go beyond this principle or to its root is to enter the domain of philosophy. To look at it at a socially rational sense we can say the institution - credit - is neutral but its use acquires a character. That use issues out of the ego. Ego is a help, ego is a bar. The days of the ego are over. Hereafter it is an anachronism that has become an obstacle. What is true of human ego is true of all factors. Here the factor is the institution of credit. Credit is born to expand the welfare of the individual and increase the prosperity of the community. Used by the ego it destroys the individual. Any man has an ego which is the negative side of his personality, credit too has a personality. In fact every aspect of life, every act has its own personality. That personality too has two sides, positive and negative. Man acting from ego makes the negative side of the personality of the institution credit. Together in their virulence they destroy the life of the individual.

  • As credit destroys man's life when used negatively, Money destroys social life when its wrong side is drawn upon.
  • A fundamental Truth such as Love, Knowledge, Beauty, Silence etc is wholly pure, enjoys no negative side nor exhibits it.
  • Credit, Money etc are social symbols and are not basic truths.
  • A symbol is true when it represents something more valuable.
  • A symbol has two sides of context and appearance as knowledge is represented by a degree. The degree is a symbol. It has its true side and false side.
  • One can activate the false side. Such an activation destroys itself and the field of its action.
  • The Theory explains the Depression as artificial, as an exercise of Money on the wrong side destroying the field of its action viz social life and itself, its currency value.
  • Since 1929 we see the human society has resorted to various regulations that curbs the excessive role of Money.
  • The US production being 34% of the world's production the damaging effects could affect all the world.
  • This is a theoretical perception. To establish this thesis a research is needed that will show 'How the real value of Money' was artificially extended by the Banks, trade, stock exchange, industry etc.

-- Coolidge hides under the table.

  • He believed he lost his son and father because he became the President.
  • Grace Coolidge said that time had come to spend money but she was not qualified to do that.
  • With 1933 - 8 index of 100 it moved from 58 in 1921 to 110 in 1929.percapita income from $ 522 to $ 716.
  • In 1914 the US had 1.3 million cars, one for every 5 people.
  • Expenditure on radios rose from 11 million dollars in 1820 to $ 412 millions in 1929.

President Coolidge loved mystification. When he invited people into his room, he hid under the table and enjoyed their discomfiture. America is a country where wealth multiplied more quickly than in other places. For whatever reason, when greater energy is released, it has a tendency to be used at the lowest point of existence. Each plane being endless, the natural result is to overdo the lower. Life was in a boom. Energy was everywhere. Obviously it cannot be absorbed at higher levels of culture and education before the lower levels of comfort and convenience are saturated. A developing country needs a strong government and an able leader. Ability of the leader must find expression through organised character and well developed manners. In practice even the government was not fully formed in that army, police and currency were not adequately provided. When it came to ability the USA found a President who could unite the nation. It was Lincoln. When money began to proliferate, she could not find a President who could understand and appreciate the progressive role of paper currency. President Jackson launched a war on banks and closed the bank that was de facto federal bank. The period of Coolidge was one of ever increasing prosperity. He was instrumental to that. He had the ability. It is characteristic that his wife had the subtle knowledge it was a period where money was to be spent. Expanding money economy needs in the population an attitude of spending. This touches the Theory.

  • Expansiveness rests on the capacity for expenditure.
  • His hiding under the table shows ability is more quickly developed than the appropriate manners.
  • Again the pressing prosperity of the nation emerges sooner than people acquire the habit of spending.
  • Statistics on per capita income, car ownership, expenditure on the radio and index on growth show beyond doubt the BOOM America was in.
  • Still, the crash came. Surely it was NOT an economic depression, it was a depression created by the perverse willful misuse of Money in destroying what was painstakingly built up over the century.
  • Surge of energy precedes the organisation of it into manners or self discipline. 

Workers leave unions when they buy a second hand car.

Nothing to fear but fear itself.

Paul Johnson says that the Wall Street crash of October 1929whose effectsremained till the beginnings of WWII still remains mysterious inspite of historical and economic research of half a century.

The US, Britainand other financial powers tried to maintain the prosperitylevel of the world deliberately inflating money supply. This was done secretly by the Fedwithout the knowledge of the public or sanction of the legislature.

Maintaining the money in circulation credit was expanded from $45 million to $73 million between 1921 and 1929.

Karl Marx proposed to usher in Socialism by taking over the means of production in a Revolution. American free society achieved the same goal, through the same principle but differently. The instrument and symbol was the car. The American worker moved to the property owning class eliminating the need for a bloody revolution. His increased wages, the wide spread technology together created that possibility. Car was the pre-eminent product of mass production as a result of greater technology. Acquiring the car was the status symbol. His higher wages enabled it. As a car owner, the worker feels he belonged to the propertied class. The goals of the Revolution were achieved by the bloodless revolution in the market place - higher wages and cheap products. Even Raja yoga can be done on other lines, says Sri Aurobindo. Theoretically any goal can be achieved by more than one way. Workers, even when they buy a second hand car cease to be members of the unions. It was President Roosevelt who said that there was nothing to fear. He who makes that statement stands before something immense if not infinite. It is this attitude in the population that dispensed with the proletarian Revolution. This attitude shows they have that very attitude they would acquire after a successful revolution. Thus the revolution was eliminated.

Johnson speaks of the Mystery of the crash. The fools of Goatham crossing a ford wanted to ensure the safe arrival of all and counted the heads. Each of the 10 men counted and arrived at the number 9 as he did not count himself. It was a wayfarer who counted them all and 'solved' their problem. Problems are created by willful superstitious ignorance. Depression was one. Historical and economic research of half a century is done by those who created the problem as the research is done by the same perspective which created the problem. One needs a clarity that theorising gives to acquire the right perspective. One can disprove Marx, cannot escape the facts of what happened. These facts will not explain to the old perspective which is to trace the course of events. One may do it several times. He will not SEE the cause. He must widen his enquiry from products, money, market to Society as a whole and then ask the questions. Market is a part. Society is a whole. The whole will clear the doubt the part is unable to wipe off.

  • Strongand Norman, governors of Fedand Bankof Englandmanaged international finances. (Pages 728 -732)
  • The US government demanded its war loans back.
  • The government discriminated in issue of loans.
  • It helped foreign governments to raise cheap money in New York market.
  • The aims were to support certain regimes and promote America's export business, and keep international economy afloat.
  • Domestic industries, subsidised export industries by uneconomic loans and investment bankers benefitted. The population as a whole suffered as competitive prices were denied to them.
  • Keynes was their inspiration.
  • That Keynes saved the world from laissze-faire capitalism in the interwar years is one of the myths.
  • The German Wizard protested. It was described as the greatest error in 75 years in the American Fed Reserve Board.
  • In the same period 1921-29 the productivity of the American worker rose by 43%.
  • Money was manipulated to benefit income from interest, dividends and rent. It was twice as high as wages.

Society throws up organisations. The most powerful and comprehensive of them is the government as it holds power. The most powerful organisation the government creates is the military. Trade and communication are organisations created by the society, aided and regulated by the government. Money is created by the society and entirely taken over for administration by the government. One reason for that is the social power of Money is directly offered to it by the government and maintained all the time. Among the rest education is the prominent to which the society gives the inspiration, government offers its financial support in varying measures. Misuse of the military especially in the lands of the vanquished was proverbial and legendary till recently. Generals, Admirals and their men shared the loot from the enemy. No one realises till today Money is a more powerful organisation and its capacity to control the society is far greater than the Military. Whereas Military misdemeanours were largely initiated by the military leaders, manipulation of the money power and its direction were entirely by the government. Here the individual benefit is not so much the aim as the power of direction. As an excellent health can be squandered to the point of endangering it by eating habits that originally arose to foster health, a law emerges here: An instrument organised to raise the efficiency can, by choice or ignorance, be negatively used to destroy the creator. Military turning against the population or the government that created it is one instance. Transport that was created to develop agriculture in US, came to the point of humourously claiming one of its three crops. The same was said of banks too. In an indirect way it can be said of education too. Education is to foster society. There were so many occasions when the educated destroyed the government, occasionally the society. Such destructions can be positive or negative. Johnson gives exact details of how MONEY was consciously manipulated at the national and international level. And still, he says the mystery about the Depression remains. Should a research be instituted to prove this hypothesis: 'A booming economy was ruined by Money manipulation', the field has all the details. It is now possible to establish the date, event that gave the direction of downturn to the economy. It won't be an inference. The facts cited so far clearly explain the assumption as an argument rationally and logically stated.

  • Bankers, business men, wall street experts and academic economists did not understand the system they had been so confidently manipulating.
  • Keynesfailed to predict either the crash or the extent or duration of the crisis.
  • The dangers of self-regulating economy indicated the opposite: the risk of ill informed meddling.
  • People are most credulous when they are most happy. They fought and sold in blissful ignorance. In 1927 the number of shares changing hands was at an all time record of 567 million. It rose later to 920 millions.
  • The market was discounting not merely the future but the hereafter.
  • The new investment trusts were archetypal inverted pyramids. They had high leaverage.

* The United Founders Corporation rose from $500 to $686 million worth.

*  Another rose from $6 million to a billion dollar value.

Experience first, efficiency later, education is the last. Experience before education will be unconscious. Unconscious efficiency can go wrong at any time, especially when the active frontier outreaches the supporting foundation. Efficiency yields confidence. Superstitious confidence admits of manipulation while conscious knowledgeable confidence results in efficiency, never leads to manipulation. Paul Johnson categorically lays down all the experts were confidently working, but no one ever understood the system they were working. Keynes was the author of much of the activity. He was unable to predict. It is right he caused the crash because of his perverse moral life.

JP Morgan believed that market is the best regulator of public interest. It was true in his time, a time when he was the institution presiding over the forces of money. Also he was a man of values. He was able to save the market by his own integrity. In saving the sliding Trusts and Corporation he was not indiscriminate. He chose those who could be saved after examining their accounts. Now, the unformed forces entered into the phase of blissful ignorance and over indulged not imagination but speculation. Morgan could choose which Trusts could be saved. In the market there is no one to exercise the control. 900 million exchanges took place among a population of 110 millions.

When the Fed was later created regulations came to be installed. $6 million worth expanding to a billion, half a million rising to $686 million are MONEY power. As initially banks multiplied money 3 times and later 9 times and still kept the money power within the realm of social power, now Money Power is seen expanding in individual cases 160 times and 1300 times, money power exceeded its social power. The North waged war against the South financing the operations by a fourth of real money. Perhaps today Money power can really expand 100 times or more. To make this statement valid calculations must be made based on this theory. At different moments the power of money is different. It can be calculated. From 1945 till now the currency circulation rose by 100 times from $30 billions to $3 trillions. Out of this expansion we have to deduct the part that expanded by the rise in production and productivity. One calculation puts the rise in productivity at 50 times. Suppose from that we determine the rise in production we will be able to know the expansion of Money power on the strength of speed, creation of new institutions, changed attitude, rise in credibility etc. That will show the point which the expansion of money should not cross. Keynes did not predict the point at which a crash or a recession will precipitate. Its extent will be determined by the extent of over stepping. Its duration is fixed by the time money supply returning to the limit.

The economy ceased to expand by 1929. The quantitative growth of economy will end, not the qualitative growth.

Business slides serve an essential purpose of self-adjustment.

The business community needs patience till this adjustment takes place.

In 1920, it took a year.

The 1929crash too could have self-adjusted.

The index came to 224 from 452, the peak. This need not create a concern as one year after steep rises in December 1928, it was 245 only. The panic removes the speculators.

In 1929, if there had been patience before the end of 1930, the adjustment would have been there. By July 32, the index fell to 58. Why the recovery was not there?

Conventionally it is explained that Hooverrefused to use government power torestore the economy. In '33 Rooseveltdid what Hoover refused and restored it.

Hoovertried the aspects of the New Deal. It failed to work. Johnson lamentsthat history has no justice or logic. It is only chronology.

Theodore Rooseveltsaid that when the average man loses money he attacks rightand left like a wounded snake.

FDRhad a land slide victory. To LippmannFDR was a cheerful pleasant person of no grasp of affairs.

Hooverand FDRwere mean to each other.

The slump effectively turned the individuality of the American to entirely depend on the state.

Johnson has given an able summary of the Depression in facts, figures, opinions. He is venomously prejudiced and endeavours seriously to show that the New Deal was started by Hoover. The issues posed by the mass of facts given by Johnson are,

  • The economy left to itself would have rallied back to health.
  • Government interference was meddlesome - The US citizen turned to the state.
  •  WW II saved the world from Depression.

The theoretical position is freedom from Government, must be followed by government regulation. The independent individual should submit to the collective where the social issues pass from his hands to the state. FDR, a descendant from aristocracy, was a fit human vehicle to restore the economy to health. The facts and the theoretical position here are seen in

  • The early rebellion of scientists came largely from the priests.
  • According to the Theory the future is in the past.
  • The Indian freedom Movement was led by 5 eminent men -- Gandhi, Patel, Nehru, Jinnah, Liaquat - who were all trained at the Inner temple as barristers.
  • It is freedom of the political atmosphere the British extended that made the National Congress to develop its platform. The British did not resort to the suppression of Stalin or Hitler.
  • The education of the church created Luther and the scientists.
  • The total freedom of the individual citizen is only a phase, not a permanent feature. The individual's ultimate duty is to foster the growth of the collective. As man is not conscious, the turning point arrives through a clash of interests that is a crash of economy. The crash surfaced in the economy as the USA's main achievement is Prosperity.
  • A conservative generation is followed even in the families of the leaders by a radical generation - conservation organised generates the opposite in the next generation with equal or greater intensity is the position taken by the Theory.
  • Economy expands. Its quantitative expansion comes to a halt the moment the society is saturated. Then it moves to the next plane as we see abundantly in the computer. Coaches, cars, railways, continue their expansion in air travel. What remains stable is the field of transport. To expect the quantitative expansion to continue may not be wise or practicable.

The argument of Johnson that the slump will have adjusted itself will be right, if there is a steadying force in the economic movements. That is not true. War came as a boon to a shattered economy. It ended in 1945. The depression should have reared its head. It had not. Had it adjusted itself? No. The government was not aware of the post-war phenomenon such as GI and baby boom. It consciously created the Marshall Plan to offset the vanishing market the WW II was. Though the hot war ended cold war began. Indirectly it kept up the tempo of the market, after some fashion.

To say that the economy will revive by itself is not like saying health will restore itself after a period of illness or other similar phenomenon. The slump in the market was due to conscious introduction of speculation. Speculation is incapable of withdrawing itself as it has no incentive to do so. Speculation is a growing phenomenon. Unless prevented by law, it is likely to persist. To believe that the health of the market will restore itself is to assume that 1) the market has a steadying health and 2) speculation will die a natural death. The first is partly true. It will become false when a foreign organism enters and stays there. Monetary manipulation is that foreign organism.

Hoover's indifference to the veterans' protest and attack on them is callousness. That he should sit for a sumptuous meal with his wife while Vets were beaten outside does not speak well of him. He used to keep FDR on his crutches wantonly and FDR refusing to offer personal security to Hoover when his life was at stake were mean acts by the First citizens of the country. Obviously wealth multiplied faster than people acquired aspects of culture.

Cheerfulness solves problems is a yogic principle. FDR was the laughing boy to the writer. He was able to solve the world's greatest economic problem because he could maintain his cheerful demeanours during those oppressive days.

Self-adjustment is an essential principle not only in economy but in health, politics, weather, rise of empires, religious revivals, spread of atheism etc. But it is a partial one. Its role differs from period to period. No generalisation can be meaningfully attempted in the above contest. Theoretically we can say: Organisms as well as organisations that have attained stability in a phase of development will restore themselves to health if disturbed by an alien vibration less strong than its central personality.  

The Americans make excellent diplomats.

The Washington naval conference changed Japanfrom an active friend into a potential enemy. Japan was a restless aggressive power.

The Japanese were alerted to the possibility of an attack on British, Frenchor Dutch possessions when the limitation of The American naval-base was pointed out.

The American government's world role to preserve peace was usually counter productive.

The American army with 132,000 officersand men was the sixteenth - largest in the world, smaller than that of Czechoslovakia, Poland, Turkey, Spain, and Rumania. General Mac Arthur, the Chief of Staff, had the only limousine of the Army.

Hoovermade no positive moves to oppose Japanese expansion into Manchuria.

Britainlargely responded to a remilitarised Germanyby appeasement.

The fear of a second world war was universal.

The Depression, after 70 years of dramatic economic expansion making the US the richest country in the world, abruptly reduced half the population to penury.

There were charges that the international arms trade fomented war.

Another charge was the links between the Wilsonadministration, the banks and the arms trade brought the US into the I WW.

A complete departure from the American policy which distinguished an aggressor from the victim to neutrality which equated them both. That was what they later did in the Kashmirdispute.

The Tatas bent upon bringing their Management practices to agriculture bought extensive coffee and Tea estates and made more than 50 % profits. The American way of life made them thorough going based on no preference except the excellence of work. This trait made them excellent ambassadors everywhere. Absence of bias and thoroughness in execution made them so. Lord Curzon characterised Japan as restless and aggressive. Japan is primitive and insular. Her excessive dedication to the throne activated the national psyche. The Samurai are heroes of War, but it was the heroic idealism of the physical passion the world had outgrown long ago. Insularity always negatively energises. It is a role in all combat situations that the unalert enemy is often activated by one's excessive concern for his vulnerability. That was what happened with Japan in the Washington naval conference. Military conferences are sensitive international forum. As the front demands alert strategies, a conference too demands more than alert attitudes. It is long practice that develops it. The Americans lacked it and created a new problem. This is the creativity of Non-Being. Man is fully occupied with Being, but in a situation of confrontation the Being touching the borders of Non-Being activates its higher potentials into action. The Americans who made excellent diplomats by knowledge proved the opposite by lack of experience. The European diplomats had a hoary past in this line, particularly the British. It is a spiritual principle not to activate the hostile forces by undue concern. Attention energises. It is a matter of utmost interest that the American Army was only 132,000 strong and 16th in size in the world, smaller than Turkey's. The rapidity with which they built it into the very best reveals the rich American civilian potentials and a general confirmation of the Theory that for one determined, INFINITE scope awaits. This is a pointer for the Indian Prosperity in this quarter century.

America was long ruled by the Republicans. Breaking their domination Wilson came to the Presidency twice on the strength of his idealism. He was never aware of the fact that the world was thus offering its leadership to the USA. It was again symbolic that America preferred isolationism. One more of the reverse symbolism. The German's unseemly provocation of sinking the American ships breaking their promise, provoked Wilson to join the war on the sides. At the end of the War, the world leadership fell plump into their laps. We see the following events that led to the final consequence of making the League of Nations inconsequential.

  • The economy of USA attracted the leadership, not its political maturity.
  • It is not given to the Republicans to lead the world.
  • The country elected a Democratic President, Wilson.
  • The successful culmination of the war offered the world leadership to the USA, in the person of Wilson.
  • He and his team brought the ladies to the Paris conference converting it into a tourist occasion of silly exhibitionism.
  • Wilson wrote his 14 points in a hurry giving it no deep thought or preparation.
  • Wilson offered Clemenceau the Chair of the conference who used it to wreak vengeance against Germany.
  • Back in the USA Wilson's 14 points were not endorsed by the legislature.
  • Thus ended the participation of the USA in the League.

The surging abundance of wealth attracted the world leadership. The USA was not yet a formed political entity. But the occasion was ripe. Hence Wilson adorned the Presidency. His hankering after isolationism, his bringing his wife to the conference, his haste in putting down the world shaking thoughts, his handing over the conduct of the conference to Clemenceau, France's small minded vindictiveness are all symptoms of the ensuing II war. Had America accepted the leadership offered to it, the post war crash would not have occurred Death sets in when you stop growing. The fact that the causes of crash are not yet identified by anyone in the world, symbolises the fact that the world is not yet mentally mature to get rid of war. Hence the insistent presence of international terrorism. Should scholars view the crash theoretically and arrive at the cause, instantaneously the conscience of the world will awaken to the fact that war is no longer relevant. The readiness is partially shaping in the consciousness of the world. It should entrench itself in the substance of the earth.

When Manchuria was attacked by Japan, the USA was not alerted. She awoke only when Pearl Harbour was attacked. The USA came to a natural position of leadership, but was shy of accepting the mantle, till she was provoked into it. Had she risen to the occasion the second WW would have been avoided. Britain took to the line of appeasement to aggressive Germany. The defence industry backed by the banks was thriving on sale of arms consciously arming nations for another war. The attitude of the government is not that of international political leadership, but one of a simple nation mindful of its economic gains. It is during this phase America discarded her moral role of entertaining parties to a conflict as the right one and wrong one, to acquire a position of neutrality. Neutrality is the status of a judge, not that of a leader. That was what the USA did when Kashmir dispute arose in the UNO.

For 70 years the USA was the richest country in the world. The Depression reduced half the population to penury. It is understandable that such a Depression reduces their level of prosperity and affluence. The question is how could fifty percent of the population be reduced to penury and poverty. Mother says for a small error catastrophic effects issue; for a small positive effort vast benefits accrue. It is the characteristic of an evolutionary force. Level of Prosperity subsiding is the law of economics. Though during the Depression we have been witnessing an economic phenomenon, we understand that the force behind the Depression is one of evolution. Hence this characteristic. A man in a job can get a promotion or an increment in salary by dint of his effort or efficiency. When political force decides to act in his life, the least it can offer him is the post of an MLA. That is the difference between his effort at his own efficiency and his exertions in politics. The same force acting in the opposite direction will have a catastrophic effect. Thus we understand the crash is the direct result of the Force acting in the negative direction. It was the evolutionary Force of social progress. It chose to act through the instrument of Money.

The air in Europe was thick with the fright of the imminent war. That fear was universal. The First WW was known as the war to end all wars. After that the fear remained in the atmosphere. The fear was not peculiar to one opinion or even one nation. It was universal. The universality of fear indicates that it is not a localised or partial vibration. The Universality was from its evolutionary nature. 

In Johnson's opinion Rooseveltwas no better than Baldwin, chamberlain, or Daladierin his readiness to launch a war against Hitler.

It was not the idealistic leadership of the USA, but the need of the hour that drew her into war.

Those who have worked hard to earn know the value of their hard earned money.

Japan's military resources were one tenth of Americas. The able Japanese Commanders were aware of this fact and spelt it out.

War was avoidable from the point of view of ability of Japanto fight.

The Lend-Lease gave Britainand the USSRin all 50.6 billion dollars worth of arms and ammunitions.

The history of a nation can be from one single focus, say economics or politics. Or it can be comprehensive and include geography, geology, religion, military, race and social psychology. We approach the history of the USA from the theoretical point of view. An endeavour is made here to look at each point from the perspective, but I feel it is not sufficiently defined. When an obstacle is to be overcome, life does not make it mandatory. At the other end enough potentials are preserved for those who do not have the taste for the struggle. In this sense, no problem of Man defies an easy solution. Any problem has its solution inside it. We see the Americans never abandoning any physical problem whether it is Chicago fire or to raise buildings 4 or 5 feet above the ground. Labour shortage they met with labour saving machines. The uniqueness of the American population is they extend this attitude to avail of opportunities. Solving a problem and availing of an opportunity are poles apart. It takes more than one generation to move from one to the other. In the USA it was done adequately. What they had not done in the period under scrutiny was to create opportunities.

The second WW became inevitable to the USA after 1941. For the world at large that war totally destroyed the stratified rigidities of Europe giving birth to the European union, apart from taking human kind from physicality to beyond vitality, if not directly into mentality. The vacillations of the British leadership was no mere hesitation. They were working for raising the standard of living at a time their very existence was in jeopardy. It was myopic sufficiency that invites sure annihilation. Roosevelt was no better, till Pearl Harbour harshly informed the nation of the imminent danger. The forces of Hitler were organised, militant, passionate and virulent. In size, it was overwhelming. In spirit they were in flames. Europe was passive, the USA was indifferent and Britain obliviously unconscious. Still we see the War was won. The 136,000 US Army rose to 4 millions, an expansion of 30 times which reveals the depth of patriotic energies. What won the war was not the political leadership of the world, but the Grace that presides over her destiny. The possibility of avoiding the war was also present. The able commanders and Admirals of Japan spoke out among themselves that for one year they could run riot but would peter out in the second and third years. The ratio of resources of Japan and the USA in terms of military resources were,

                          USA               Japan


Steel          -           20        -           1

Oil             -           100      -           1

Coal           -           10        -           1

aircraft-     -           5          -           1


Shipping    -           2          -           1

Labour       -           5          -           1


Overall                  10        -           1


Generosity, idealism, pragmatism are issues in this context. Nature has given several countries on several occasions several missions. Now America is leading the world. Such leadership is possible for the energy of idealism. Idealism is the generosity of mind. The generosity that emerges through the Mind as idealism becomes real when it is pragmatic or practical. What we see in the world in all walks of life is the ideal of service that makes one a Good Samaritan. Here it is psychological expansiveness in good will and sympathy. One more step further it needs to be material help. Those who have come by wealth accept this idea of Christian charity of helping the poor. Never has it gone beyond this even as a concept. Work in the world cannot be accomplished by such milk-sop goodness. It demands the flow of milk of human kindness. Spiritually such giving is seen in the 'Wounded Swan' of Edwin Arnold. Materially it means one's earnings should go entirely to public service. In America private savings end in public expenditure. It may be true, but it is by circumstances, not by intention. If the Americans are 30 times richer than others, they work 30 times harder. Money comes by hard work. He who earned it by dint of hard labour has no urge to part with it. If it is happening by itself, it shows the direction it should take. Among those who attain spiritual enlightenment, the problem is to find the right recipient. One is considered lucky if the right disciple arrives. Money is not so easy to earn especially by right methods; but it is more difficult to find projects on which it can be generously spent. America sold its arms and ammunitions to other nations; later it lent them to the Allies. To deserve the leadership America enjoys today, she must develop a generosity to serve the cause of the world. Theoretically, it conflicts with the other principle that to help another is to invite trouble. To reconcile these two is one thing, but one can lead only when inspired by idealism. Pragmatic idealism is a new concept. As man is individually incapable of it, Nature expects the business to devise organisational and technological ways and means by which the haves can generously serve the have-nots. The phenomenon of better products for cheaper prices is that of commercial organisation. For the world to unite nations - the collectives - should take upon themselves this attitude of Self-giving. Hard work is rare. Man does not undertake it for himself. But when he does, he should come forward to give away its fruits. Evolutionary leadership demands evolutionary attitudes. Man taking upon himself the attitudes circumstances compel him is to retain the role of such leadership. Hard work developing psychological generosity is the human evolution in social progress.

Aggressive nationalism     

There are several facets and aspects of Social Evolution. They grow in stages.

  • One central movement is from the collective to the individual and almost as a descent back to the collective.
  • Such progress occurs at the physical, vital, mental, spiritual and supramental stages. Each stage divides into two phases of consciousness and substance. There is a further sub division of positive and negative within each phase. These divisions are endless till each possibility becomes unique as Matter ends in atom and life's unit is an act. We consider only broad categories of the first few levels.
  • Conquest of Time or Space is also conquest of the other.
  • There is another line of progress, physical sensation, vital sensation, emotional feeling, mental perception, spiritual vision, intuition. This reveals in the individual and the collective as sub-conscious and conscious growth.
  • The collective has several stages, the family, the community, the caste, the class, the ethnic identity, the nation soul and the world union.
  • In the nineteenth century Europe's aggressive nationalism honoured national expansion.
  • Nations conquering the rest of the world has several versions or stages:

Mental development of Greecespread all over Europeand the world.

Vital development of Romeresulted in the Roman Empire.

The mental development of Greecewas in a classical language, poetry, literature, culture, philosophy, scientific curiosity.

The mental development of Europeafter the dark ages was in Renaissance, Reformation, and particularly in the efflorescence of Science as a way of mental life.

Vital development is in the creation of public law, founding of an empire, developing trade and commerce, converting principles of Science into technology. Their crux lies in the birth of ORGANISATION at each level.

Intellectual maturity emerges as precision of philosophic thought, higher ranges of linguistic development, creation of knowledge of life, capacity to find finer uses of knowledge in life and create culture which spreads as fashion all over the world. Paris became the capital of the world by its intellectual eminence expressing through the Frenchlanguage.

Mind, in its descent, emerges in the physical as practically useful skills, thus creating a pragmatic way of life as well as culture.

The vital expansion is through religion, trade or military, each after leading to the other. Code Napoleoncoming to stay is the vital conquering Mind.

Expansion that needs energy is aggressive. Aggressive nationalism has the direct consequence of military attack, founding an empire or in the lower side loot, rape, arson etc.

Vital expansiveness after political conquests are over is expansion of an economic market for non-political gain which is the phase of US expansion now.

These movements are fertile fields for one to see 1) the evidence of good leading to evil 2) Evil emerging out of good as life affirms itself through good as well as evil. The strong expresses good, the weak expresses evil. Evil is the strength of the weak or the formative.

Every sector of life government, agriculture, trade, commerce, money, banking, athletics, transport, communication, education, culture, religion, spirituality undergo all the above transitions according to its geological, geographical, historical, political, religious, spiritual context.

To discuss these principles in action in the recent history of 400 or 500 years is a summary effort of this work.

The two WWs are the result of Germanyoutgrowing negatively her unfulfilled aggressiveness in her spirit of nationalism.

The inconceivable is not impossible when people are working for self-destruction. It is equally true for all those who undertake an adventure in the evolutionary direction.

Pearl Harbour destroyed half of America's military air power in the entire theatre. Seen in another perspective, one word of wisdom is equivalent to an enormous material gain or loss.

The invasion of India, the occupation of Australia, the assault on the USA were never seriously contemplated by Japan.

Europe was ruled by one single royal family ensuring peace for 40 years. Royalty of one of country found it extremely advantageous to secure political stability through marriages. Tsar, Kaiser, the Spanish throne, the Greek King, are blood relations. It was a stroke of genius to have thought of this strategy in the nineteenth century which paid rich dividends for several decades. This is a vital solution to physical conflicts. China is a nuclear power. Imagine the nuclear tensions during the last quarter of the 20th century if Nixon had not visited China and sought to open the Chinese market. The once feeble power of North Korea is now holding the world to ransom by the possession of atomic bombs. One may ask what prompted Nixon to do so. One may answer it was lucky for the world.

  • Luck is the unconscious opportunity in the next higher plane.
  • The question is whether such opportunities cannot now be sought consciously.
  • A study of history seeking Life Knowledge that has availed of such lucky opportunities and others that were missed, will give us possession of valuable mental understandings which will prevent the refusal of Cripps plan. It was refused arbitrarily. Such a study would have put us in possession of an organised knowledge, a systematic recurrence of events, if not a principle of life. He who refuses arbitrarily will not be able to do so the result of several studies, an idea issuing out of a principle.
  • Such a study will yield a broad crop of events, ideas, patterns of events etc. To the perceptive it will yield all the subtle symptoms of how the events are likely to move ahead.
  • Jallian Wallah Bagh shows bloodshed was inevitable in the freedom struggle.
  • North Indian names became popular in Tamilnad in preference to pure Tamil names of the Dravidian movement. It was an advance symbol of the secession demand disappearing. The Brahmin slang dominating the fiction writing and spreading among the Non-Brahmin is another symptom of anti-Brahminism dying.
  • The American team to the Paris conference shows the presence of ladies will reduce the league to void.
  • Hitler's arrival one hour earlier at the table of conspiracy is one indication that the war would not end without massive physical and material destruction.
  • The American Revolution of 1776 two years after the battle of Plassey announces the birth of the British Empire in India.
  • The European Army is the forerunner of World Army. Both were shown by the UN Peace Keeping forces.
  • The disintegration of Yugoslavia and the disastrous destructions there now tell us that the intransigence of Tito only put off the tragedy to a later date. The emotional people need those tragic experiences is made clear today.
  • Invasion of Australia was never in the schemes of Japan because she is yet an unformed continent, enjoying only prosperity. For the opposite reasons India too was not their direct or main target. In 1938 or earlier we see Germany was arming herself to teeth and was looking for excuses to burst out. We do not see such a preparedness to fight Hitler on the other side. Rather, we see not a different attitude that was indifferent to the growing strength of Germany but England was indulging in wishful thinking that Hitler would behave as a gentleman. America was far from interested to fight an European war. She was interested in reviving her economy selling arms to the Allies. How then was the war won? England fought bravely under the leadership of Churchill. The question is where from the energy to win the war issued?

A body falling ill receives medical treatment. The body consents to be treated. Often it is cured of the disease inflicted on it by the believing Mind and the socially superstitious vital. Sometimes the treatment fails and the doctors give up, along with them the Mind too gives up. The vital too relaxes its tyranny over the body. At that point the body comes into its own, unleashes its inherent power to defend itself and the disease taking a downturn disappears. The patient is relieved, the doctors are baffled. This is a universal phenomenon. Hitler may be vengefully aggressive, Chamberlain may trust Hitler, but it was not the end. The world had already prepared its evolutionary spearhead in America and it would not keep quiet. We see America too nurturing her isolationism. One significant principle of life is when you are blissfully ignorant and cherish the dying spirit, God serves you through your enemy. Nature acted through the Japanese at Pearl Harbour and gave life to the anti-Axis movement. The Japanese never seriously planned to occupy India as in the subtle plane they knew that the Force came from there. When Europe, England and America were indifferent to the growth of Hitler, what saved the world was a world governing Force not seen by the visible senses. As America was prodded into war by her enemy Japan, England was energised by Churchill who was outside the government and who was the arch enemy of Indian Freedom.

  • Man was his own enemy. God had to serve his purpose serving him through his enemies, Japan, Churchilland the USSR.
  • When the formed leadership of the world was unhelpful, the Spirit of Mankind rose and acted gratuitously through any available instrument and turned the rising tide of evil against itself. India represented the Spirit. Hence Indian Freedom was the first post-war results. Japan could not conceive of attacking or occupying India.
  • The assasination of the Arch Duke at Sarajevo, Bosnia was the filmiest excuse for Germany to launch the World War. As a symptom it shows Germany and its war were passionately false in the most virulent form. A study to gather such subtle symptoms about war, terrorism, pollution etc will be a great treasure house of knowledge.
  • The Army fights because the men are devoted to the officers. The family is alive due to the devotion of its members to the head. Knowledge grows by the loyalty of the student to the teacher. Disintegration of family in the west, disregard of the teacher in the class room in America likewise signals distantly that no army can in future count upon the devotion of its men to the officers. National armies as they are constituted now are no longer a viable entity as the family. We see the duties of the family are being shifted to the companies. So, we can fairly assume that National Armies will yield place to something new, perhaps a World Army.
  •  New Deal directly brought the war economy.
  • The facts of extraordinary efficiency mentioned earlier must be viewed not so much as military efficiency - if so, it must be universal - but as something special to the US.

An army of 7 million, 4 million sailors, 300,000 planes, 100,000 tanks from her factories, 88,000 ships and landing crafts from her shipyards are a US phenomenon. Is there a way to compare this production against a comparable figure in another nation?

3 months repair job in 48 hours.

7 years of construction in 14 months.

A trestle costing 1.4 million dollars that can pour 36 million tons of cement in 6 months.

We see small ingenuities achieving the world's highest records.

'Arsenal of Democracy', FDR's happy phrase for the integrated steel mill.

General Electric raising its turbine production from $1 million to $300 million.

Benefiting from the Poles and the British the capacity to break codes.

We see in the war France and other European nations capitulated while Britain fought bravely. Germany built its military production, recruited a huge army, roused their passion to conquer the world and exterminate the Jews. To examine each nation from the perspective of war, war production and compare the USA with them will be a fruitful study to draw conclusions. We have figures for the US, not comparable figures for the other countries. It is obvious that no nation was ready for war production. But the question is whether other nations or anyone nation was capable of this immense expansion written above. It is true the US could do so in isolation whereas Russia had to do so while fighting Hitler. Suppose we have the figures of the post war production in the USSR or the UK, at least they could speak. Both these countries could complain about lack of investment.

  • America had all those advantages and performed at a phenomenal rate.
  • It is worth while undertaking the above study securing comparable figures from any other period and sitting in judgement on the USA.
  • Presently we see the boundless finite, if not infinity, in manpower, factory production and above all in MAN's capacity to rise to the occasion.
  • We see that determination, not to a cause they are dedicated to, but to a work which was an economic opportunity for them.
  • Because the New Deal was a revolutionary initiative, Life has on its own brought that limitless market of wartime economy. The position of the Theory is in a right atmosphere a little effort brings results out of all proportions, especially when that little effort exhausts one's energies. The US had, we see plainly, that potential in readiness. Again, the theory says, any potential at its point of saturation attracts appropriate circumstances. Events here prove it.
  • Looking at the efficiency NOT as efficiency, but as an expression of the impossible we get another understanding. WAR was the destructive maximum. This rule requires that the presence of such a scale of destruction the presence of an equally vast scale of creativity in production. That productivity was in men, material, arms, ammunitions for the Allies and accumulating CAPITAL for the USA. Mother says MONEY is the direct link between life and Supermind.

= The USA had created a huge accumulation of that MONEY during     the war. Its significance is more revealed when we know that in            1929-32 half her population was in penury. It is a sea change, from         one end to the other, in yogic words it is a transformation. She did       find herself in the course of a movement that took the Society ahead,     not merely in the same structure, but creating a new structure of       society for that matter =

  • The general productivity becomes linguistic creativity in FDR's mouth 'Arsenal of Democracy'.

War, for the first time, gave government money to varsities for research - for the atom bomb.

Quarrels between politicians, and generals were absent in WWII. Marshalland Ikewere strategists, never commanded an army in the battle.

FDRtended to take Stalinat face value as an intellectual or pseudo intellectual. Davissaw Stalin as a benevolent democrat who insisted on the liberalisation of the constitution.

The ambassador saw Stalinwho murdered 30 million people of his as one in whose lap a child would like to sit and a dog would sidle up to.

The USA is a land where all work is done privately. War is the mother of all ultimate good. Government funding atomic research at the universities is one such. Such a move makes the government participate in public service, making the universities shed their private character. It is a healthy development in the right direction.

  • Human co-operation suppresses bitter quarrelsome differences. Its absence is an indication of the presence of a higher than human seriousness. We see the presence of a spiritual atmosphere presiding over the war effort. We have already noted more than once that Ike and Marshall were mental characters.

This war was the last phase of physicality. Hence mental characters preside over it.

The Minddoes not quarrel as much as the vital. Mac Arthurwas the apex of the vital. He always quarreled.

The character of the WWII as the point of transition to Mindis brought out by these facts.

Such a movement is accompanied by the Government moving towards the private institutions - raising the status of the collectivity.

Description of Stalin    

Roosevelt by passed Churchill and directly dealt with Stalin. He liked Stalin. Churchill was a man of action. He was far from being an intellectual. He feels in his nerves and acts on it. It was he who fought the war, working in Downing Street when bombs were flying all around. Roosevelt was not part of the active fight. His role was, in this respect, secondary. An ambassador finding Stalin inviting to a child and a dog was not childish and wrong. Stalin, who had the other grim side, had also this side of charm. This is not an intellectual knowledge to be so acquired, not can the direct experience of the war give it. War can show the other side. Neither can reveal both. When Churchill presented Stalin an ancient sword and Stalin reverentially received it, the officer who got it from Stalin dropped it. It is that incident which shows the other side of Stalin. Roosevelt believed Stalin and was quickly disillusioned. There is no difference between Hitler and Stalin. Chamberlain believed Hitler. Roosevelt believed Stalin. The uniqueness of the aspects of life wrought by the overmind are such that they can stand out in isolation in utter opposition to their native character. Only integral knowledge can know the whole and only insight and intuition can have the discrimination. Gorbachev himself was unaware of what was going on in the USSR during the days of Stalin. 

Power organised materially in Property, mentally in money are the two essential fundamentals of a nation. Next comes international relations.

  • The international relations start with military, go to politics, mature in economic trade and finally complete itself in education and cultural need.

Everyone who descended on the sacred land of America before the end of 2 years became the owner of some property. The high wages gave him access to money power. Till 1945, he was oblivious of the need for relationship with other nations. It came through the wars, mainly as supplier of arms and ammunitions. At the end of the war military, political, economic relationships overnight matured as their respective leadership. From the days of Beatles and the hippies the USA sought cultural awakening and spiritual quest mainly from the East which, in turn, resulted in the eastern population migrating to the USA.

  • The post war period, all over the world, mainly in the USA is a period when the power of Money not only got more and more organised but was moving towards a stage of self-multiplication.
  • The growth of population globally raised the value of land. It was accentuated by urban migration.
  • Urbanisation is Man's social awakening in Mind. These two powers, property and currency, played an increasingly greater part in fixing the character of urban living. Nature created this avenue and used it to destroy the distinctions of caste and class and creed of all types. The intensification of those differences in the non-urban areas is an impact of this healthy development in the towns.
  • Education organises the powers of Mind. Wherever it is directed to exploit the powers of property and Money we see the lowest rising to the highest. Wherever education goes to create a salaried class, the social power thus created goes into dormancy. It is interesting to note in these educated urban families, the uneducated having a prolific harvest of their unutilised powers through property and currency. Culture in the guise of entertainment proved to be a very rich field for these uneducated to positively exercise their talents. Apart from all these society, urban society in particular created an abundance of avenues to convert these powers into higher standard of living. As the USA passed through such a stage in 1860-1920, she now leads the world in social culture.

The power of property and currency in the life of the individual given to him as a special gift of the nation America was, is another extended expression of the feature of the USA we must ponder over.

The evolution of Property is a stage of civilisation worth considering a landmark in its existence. Property is a human social concept. A piece of land becomes an individual possession and comes to be known as Property. Before that it was a piece of land or mere land not depieced. It was a concept of ownership. Ownership arises to a formed individual. Concept of ownership is a concept of power. Man enjoyed the fruit of a tree, the water of a brook but never owned the tree or the water course. Power is organised energy. It is organised around a centre that is distinct. Man was not such a centre in a group. In a group he was more as an indistinct phase than as a well defined centre. A centre needs an individuality, a self. Philosophically, the self is the representative of the Self. The collective is the Self, the One. The individual is a member of the multiplicity, the Many. It is the process of the infinity emerging in the Finite. Such an emergence calls for an individuality, a centre, a self, a purpose, an attitude, a form that holds in itself its original force. This force holds in itself as its own reality its original consciousness. The secret godhead of Self is hidden in this consciousness. This is the process of creation by which the Self-Conscious Being becomes Matter. It is the same process of social evolution in which the individual self emerges out of the collective impersonality.

  • The power of property arose in all communities. It was acquired by Man the individual, a kind of pioneer, not as a gift from the collective, much as man everywhere was coming into his own on his own effort. The idea of welfare state is only 100 years old. It takes care of one or more of his personal responsibilities offering him impersonal support. That element is growing all over the world as a social force. North America was different when immigrants initially settled there. By the time it became the USA, it developed a collective personality found nowhere in the world and offered it to all those who entered there. What Motheris doing to the devotees - offering Her own consciousness as a tool for the individual progress in the shape of Her atmosphere - the USA did to the immigrants. That social atmosphere was an atmosphere of Power, a power that can acquire material property and enjoy the mental power of paper currency. This is her evolutionary spearhead, the tip that forges ahead. It has a further phase, a phase into which the individual power flowers as the collective power of the nation. That happened during the WWs. Such a formation was rudely interrupted by the Depression, offering that positive power the additional advantage of the negative dimension in full, Hence she dominates the world today. Nations all over the world love to imitate the USA, her ways of life and culture. It has become the dream of everyone in the world, with a possible exception of the upper classes of Europe, to migrate to the USA and settle there. Studying the American individual from this point of view of a centre of Power, a power of property and currency, is to study the human evolution in the society.

The American let Nature and circumstance give him what she intended rather than restricting the receptivity to his own acquired capacity.

When something is positively achieved, an soon as it exhausts itself, it should turn negative. Germanywhich had not resented education as Britainand Francehad done, raised its national level of scientific knowledge to the point all Europehad to know German if they had to keep informed. But that gain, because of her smaller personality, has gone to raise the ghost of two wars.

The devotees know what they want - house, job, marriage etc - but do not know what Mother can give - celestial joy, divine love, heavenly bliss, power of creating the worlds. The ultimate SHE can offer us is the ecstasy of being with her. The primitive man never knew to ask for what we now enjoy. Man aspires for anything through the highest instrument he has. Our best information is the present social possibility which is forever infinitesimal. The European immigrant before he left Europe knew he could not aspire for anything even the least of comforts and conveniences, not to speak of freedom. While in America there was freedom, physical as well as social. The psychological freedom too was there, but he was oblivious of it. Seeing an inconceivably higher wage, his freedom began to express itself. The physical absence of restraint activated the inner spiritual freedom to find outer expression. It is a conducive climate for Nature to act and give him what he never could conceive. She gave expansive lands to cultivate, offered greater returns from the land, generated POWER from water, wood and electricity and lay infinitely bare before him. Where he set out to cultivate corn She showed him coal, iron, copper and gold. More than that OIL. The American settler wise not to seek this greater resource from Nature. The absence of ignorance in him enabled her to give him more. She awakened in him physical prowess, mental curiosity, capacity to organise his work not as he had done in Europe but as Nature would admit here in the altered circumstances of his abundant life. It was all an external circumstance. He responded to it in his oblivion. Today the world over Man can respond to such grace consciously. The prosperity of the USA is because Man had not shut out Nature as he used to do in static cultures which enabled Nature to act more widely in his life. In India Man, in his orthodoxy and superstition shuts out the Light in his organised darkness.

The awakening Martin Luther brought to Germany made her appreciate the value of education. The industrial Revolution needed not workers who were simply muscles, but one who can understand his work and one who can receive training. The French Revolution opened the gates of mental horizon wide which, among other things, made people see the value of general education. Britain was conservative. She resented and resisted the new climate that helped the spread of education. France too joined that resistance in spite of the fact it was she who opened the doors to education. The anti-revolutionary forces which came back and asserted their existence, saw the efflorescence of education as the revival of the revolutionary Spirit. Germany was an exception. She valued the wave of education and welcomed it. Her level of literacy was the highest in the world. It was given to the USA to over take even Germany during this phase.

  • Personality is the determinant of accomplishment.

Germany was no nation. She was a bunch of principalities. During the later half of that century she was to be united as a nation by Bismarck. It is a law of changing societies that a positive attribute will be followed by the negative one as life seeks neither positive accomplishment or negative accomplishment, but fullness. The positive aspect to reach fullness must be replaced by the negative aspect. We see this phenomenon in India who developed the Spirit, Greece where mind emerged, Rome that established her vitality in the empire she founded. Britain who saved freedom for the world. Germany was later united. The nascent energy of unity was vigorous. What she received through education developed her science. The perfection she always enjoyed yielded her a perfect method. Science along with perfection in her methods made her a formidable power. Her urge for expression was great, being nascent. She was the source of World War I and the cause of World War II. Apart from Britain and Russia who fought her to the bitter end, it was given to the United States to complete the destruction of Germany into total dissolution.

  • Germany was the small negative instrument that aimed at self-destruction.
  • America was the vast positive vessel that aimed at leading the globe towards world union.
  • The Depression, the World Wars, were the negative alternatives the world availed of.
  • Progress is by the part.
  • When it is saturated with capacity, it is the personality that uses it.
  • The partial progress is positive as Spirit in India, Mindin Greece, Vital in Rome, Science in Europeand Scientific technology in the USA. For this to become full experience, it has to embrace the other side which is negative. India sought slavery, Greece declined, Rome entered the dark ages, Europe developed the World Wars, and the USA embraced the Depression.
  • For fullness the Self-experience must integrate with the world experience. Mindis capable of one, maybe the Self-experience. Only the Psychic can integrate Self-experience with the World experience.
  • So Memory has no role to play in the future. One cannot base himself on the past or past alone. The entire civilisation was created not based on the past, but out of nothing.
  • The entire development of the USA was because they refused to rely only on the past and looked to the future happily. This was a negative approach of not limiting oneself to the past. The full positive approach would be to move away from the Mindto the Psychic. The Indian Spirit is the immutable Spirit in the plane of Timelessness. If the Psychic should be born it will be in Indiaas she has the spiritual potential, but she does not have the energy to release the psychic which arises in the consecrated work. America has the mental-vital energy of the work, partially released from the past in experience, but tied to the mental - vital workings by her convictions. The Psychic needs the logic of the infinite and the higher reason. The American mind can only function in the concrete field of work. The Indian Spirit is motionless avoiding not only work, but life itself. Computeris the technical mechanical product which potentially combines both. Moneyis the spiritual force in society that is essential for Supramentalisation. Earning all the money the country needs through the internet, web of the computer is an opening India has where the USA can fully and realistically co-operate with India where the alternate options of the wars and Depressionare not there as they merge enabling the Psychic of the world to flower.

Basic Principle of Progress.

  • Till the advent of Man progress was made by external compulsion.
  • Now that MAN is the conscient, he can take the inner initiative and control the outer.

- Such an initiative is yoga.

- Tantra is the synthesis of yogas, but they consider Man as a soul in the body. Considering him as a soul in the Mind, Supermind can descend.

- Such an inner option was presented Man from the days of Vedas. It reemerged in Greece, Rome, Europeand the USA.

- It is there at every moment in every ACT.

Tsar Nicholas, German education, British fair play brought such a possibility to the surface as World union.

Britain inclined to the imperialistic impulse and showed its worst in Ireland.

Germany, in the person of Kaiser deliberately fabricated a perverse doctrine of racial superiority.

Rising levels of education to its acme energised its immature personality to initiate the two World Wars.

Now we see the significance of Marx. He represented the positive side of Germany, created the ideal of Socialism and offered it to the world. This explains why Jews were exterminated in Germany.

Germany was no nation. Her national unity supplied nascent energy of national pride.

Baldwin and chamberlain were in subconscious sympathy with the German racial superiority.

Lincoln, in this respect, stood out demanding the union more than abolishing slavery.

As Gorbachev destroyed dictatorship from inside, Sri Aurobindo compelled Churchill to 'destroy' the imperialism indirectly from inside by defeating Hitler.

To interpret that option of inner initiative now for each nation will be to spell it out in detail.

In Indiait is prosperity through entrepreneurship and personal integrity.

In Russiait is higher standard of living through organisation of freedom.

In Franceit is to acquire the character they lacked in war.

In Britainshe must espouse her tradition of freedom and exercise it with Ireland.

The USA that has shed isolationism must now come forward to give up her economic advantages in trade with other countries.

Italy should grow fascinated by Truth.

The Muslims should give up dictatorship or the world should take them under her dictatorship.

Japanthat accepted parliamentary democracy thrust down its throat now discovers its value and recasts it into her own cultural needs.

Chinacan make a supreme effort to become spiritual thus taking a leap from her advanced mental development.

The South American countries can opt for freedom from dictatorship.

What the Cell phone and Internetbring from outside one can choose on his own.

UNO can be made democratic.

Aidin its present from should be abolished.

An international currency that fully reflects the emerging spiritual individual can be created outside the system of Govts, if possible outside the system of Banking.

When the CommunistRevolutionburst out in Russia, it did not explain to the European thought. Marx, they thought, would be taken up by an industrialised country such as Germanyor England.

The origin and Process of Revolutions.

The FrenchRevolution, the declaration of independence by the USA, the October Revolutionof Russia. We can add the glorious revolution in Englandof 1688.

  • The gap between the Ruler and the Ruled.
  • The intensity of energy of the Ruled.
  • In Russia the aristocracy and the serfs were far apart as the country was three centuries behind. During this time the Tsar and the aristocrats had organised themselves more and more regardless of the situation of the masses. Aristocracy is an organisation. An organisation is power, a power greater than what the situation permits, because the organisation is creative. The creative process draws its energy from the general system first releasing energy into the system which is its creativity. The organisation by its very nature continues to create whether the system is creative or not. At that point the organisation, here the aristocracy, becomes a negative instrument. A negative instrument is capable of negatively charging the system i.e. energising its negative side and rendering the whole system potentially explosive.
  • In the Depression Money and the organisation Money is played this role. Earlier, MONEY was creative in US economy in the sense that it created more money than the economy was capable of. As and when this excessive money gets further organised, it further creates money. Between 1860 and 1929 this happened and there was a boom. At that time there was no effective Fed came into existence. Society and Government were incapable of receiving the positive benefits of the increased output of Money by the organisation of Money. Continuing to be creative, Money became negative i.e. lost its value. The stock market crash was the occasion. Even if the stock market was not there, a little later the crash was bound to come. What Marx said about the inevitable death of capitalism did not anticipate the role of Money. He perceived the cycles of production would collapse. There was an inherent truth in it. Looked at from a wider Theory we assign that role to the negative functioning of Money, not the economic money, but Money the organisation.
  • The Russian Universities had too many students from the class of Serfs. Their education provided the ignorant masses a leadership as the England educated Barristers of India led the Freedom Movement.

The Origin is the gap.

The Process is the creation of the needed leadership.

The Great Depressionand the World Wars.

  • To discover a cause, rather the cause, of the Depression will lead us to prove it.
  • Proof has more than one dimension. 1) It should be logical 2) It must be reasonable 3) There should be corroborating parallels in history, the economic history 4) A statistical proof, if possible, would be better appreciated by the scholar public. 5) Should some soundness to the theory be claimed it should help prevent future crashes 6) In the light of events that threatened a crash and other recessions, the arguments of the theory should hold good. 7) Should there be a general truth in its logic, it must apply to other major situations in history as the world wars, 8) That takes us farther. This approach must have something to do in resolving inter-state conflicts as Kashmir dispute.

A law for its proof needs its celebrated tools, scales, measurements, indices, coefficients, curves that trace the movements, a mathematical representation and a method of prediction. Economics as a field of study has not developed such tool at least for our purposes. The existing tools are apparently inadequate to be used here. We can offer two things that are substantial, if not offer statistical proofs. Maybe that too is possible in a slender way.

  • Its efficacy can be demonstrated, if the powers that be are willing to test it on the present or future situations. Should such results be valid, proof or no proof, the law must hold its own ground.
  • As measurements are unavailable, SYMPTOMS can be suggested in good number around 1929 and in subsequent events.

The theme here is the capacity of Money the organisation has outlived its positive phase and moved into a negative phase which initiated the crash. The measurements we need are 1) that which can measure the organisation of Money. 2) The point of transition from the positive to the negative phase 3) A scale for the positive phase and another scale for the negative phase.

The two world wars came and went. Historians have spelt out the causes in each case. The Theory can do so from its own point of view. Here also the scales are necessary but the world will not ask for one. History narrates facts that led to the wars. It might have given its reasons for its origin. They too may be of facts. The Theory will speak of a law, offer arguments for the two wars. Some such laws are

  • A society or a nation is moved by its own energies.
  • Survival, growth, development, evolution generate social energies.
  • Such energies are witnessed during famine, excess production. Mindtrying to organise successfully, inner urge to evolve newer forms of living or higher values of existence.
  • Even increasing population can act on the society so.
  • Physicality in Man has its higher values of courage and honour while its lower intensities seek outlets in cruelty or tyranny.
  • Human cruelty is the basis of war. Man's capacity for organisation offers wars their scope. The rest are incidental.

Confining ourselves to the two world wars the reason for the first war was the belligerent attitude of Germany. It came from its excessive production, ranking itself as number one in Europe and number two in the world in that she had 7% of the world's production while Britain and France were behind. This was directly the result of her highest level of literacy and the finest way she had organised her higher education. Her mind was set on Science. She stood foremost in the scientific thinking to the extent scientists all over Europe found it necessary to learn German. Her universities excelled those of Paris and London. She became a nation only recently under Bismarck. That enabled her to enjoy the abundant nascent energies that arose out of the new found unity. These things could be further traced to the Freedom the French Revolution conferred on her. The excess energies of Britain of similar nature were absorbed by her empire. France had a smaller scope in empire building but by her developing French into an intellectual language much of her energies were consumed. In the nineteenth century French was well on the way to becoming an international language while her distant competitor was Spanish. Her claim was in quantity not quality. England and France had gone through the glorious Revolution in 1688 and the French Revolution of 1789. One was fully mental while the other had a large mental element of leading ideas of Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. Emperors of Germany were often Catholics which by its contradiction to the Protestant population generated the energies of difference or underlying conflict. 19th century was one of aggressive nationalism with distant possibilities for a world union. Germany made the option of the wrong side and fanned the ambition of world hegemony. The Jews always had that ideal of bringing the world under their religion. This is one strong reason for Germany to go in all out against the Jews. The unexpressed imperialist ambitions of France and Britain were in full subconscious sympathy with the aggressive preparations of Germany.

For each argument above we can discover a symptom in the events so far recorded.

  • In a Germany of vast unemployment the German youth in quest of jobs invariably found the employers Jews.
  • The assasination of the ArchDuke was a flimsy excuse.
  • Hitler had the demagogic capacity to convert elections a tool of democracy into one of dictatorship.    
  • The Organisation that Mindis,
  • Mother says the material mind preserves the memories.
  • Mind executes what it understands. Medicines are thus discovered.
  • Mind understanding the organisation of Money, has created money. Money that represents production is a social tool in a competitive atmosphere. Money that represents the emerging spiritual Individual is a tool of non-competitive society that is the basis of the World Union. National armies belong to a competitive economic atmosphere. World Army belongs to World Union. International currency is its monetary tool. The other man's point of view is its attitude.
  • Mind that comprehends Money that represents the individual is more than the Mind that we know. It is a mind that moves towards the Supermind.
  • In Europe Mind seeks to maintain what was achieved i.e. to preserve the culture. There was nothing to preserve in the virgin land that America was. So they were progressive. It was the external compulsion and the external opportunities that moved the American positively. It was an evolutionary society. Man who moved from inside without the external compulsion is the evolutionary individual. World has to create him. An inner spiritual energy available from an earlier spiritual attainment, as in India, is the raw material for that. The Indian Spirit is in dormancy and it is the unevolving, immutable Spirit that is the Witness Purusha. That must change into an evolving spirit, evolving in life and work through values that are spiritual skills. It needs an instrument of social force. It is Money created by the emerging Individual, not the Money that represents competitive production of the economy. That Money demands integrity in public and private life. It can Self-multiply drawing its energies from the individuals who are not possessive, acquisitive, competitive, or miserly.
  • Mind created this world of ours by its understanding of the future possibilities. To accomplish it, it sought the laws of matter and material forces such as electricity. To accomplish at a higher level the laws of life and Spirit are to be discovered. They are in the subtle Causal planes. The Internet is poised to shift to a subtle plane. Computer is the modern electricity that brings about the vastest organisational change.
  • The point of transition just now is the Mindthat thinks to understand should shift to an understanding without thinking i.e. through SILENCE.
  • Such a transition is accompanied by a host of other things where

Selfishness changes into selflessness

Our view yields place to other man's point of view.

Search in matter rises to that in life and mind.

Gross plane moves to subtle planes.

Productive currency becomes currency of Trust 

National armies dissolve and the World Army rises.

  • FDRfollowed by Trumanwas a tower of original strength succeeded by an original vacuum.
  • Johnson who was abusive of FDR, is all praise for Truman's deep adherence to religious values. Truman was so rude to Molotov who said he was never talked to like that in all his life.
  • Japanlost in 1942, was stubborn till August 15in 1945.
  • To the Japanese the death of a whole village does not matter.
  • FDRwho appealed against bombing civilians, was to later order total annihilation of countless Japanese cities.
  • The Japanese are immature. Their ambition can be great. It was the irrational obstinacy of those in charge of their destiny. The cruel irony was Nagasakiwas a Christian city.

FDR became an institution in the American political life. He was a legend. We saw Mark Antony talking to a Roman mob that came to celebrate Caesar's death turn it against Brutus in a few minutes. That is the power of speech, described as demagogy. It was a mob that could never think. Antony was swaying their emotions from one end to the other. What was involved for the mob was their own emotion about their leader. Nothing of their own was involved in it. FDR was asking the common people to deposit their heard earned money which they had withdrawn the previous day from the bank fearing its bankruptcy. We saw an American politician describing ordinary people when they lost money. He said they would hit right and left as a wounded snake. How could FDR do it? He gave them a practical confidence that their money was safe in the very bank from which they had withdrawn. To the illiterate, unthinking mob, Roosevelt gave an economic understanding about Money going to the first principles. Churchill did one better. He made them walk the London streets as if nothing was happening during the days of German bombing. He made them risk their own lives, for the joy of pride of being an English man. FDR was reelected 4 times. He presided over the economy and energised it to expand endlessly during the war time. Truman inherited his mantle for no particular fault of his. He was President by default. Johnson goes to great lengths to praise Truman for his values and traces those values to his religious upbringing. Johnson's prejudice in favour of religion is as great as his prejudice against Napoleon and anything that is French.

Japanese Generals and Admirals spoke out that in the event of their attacking the USA they would run smoothly for one year but would be wiped out in the 2nd and 3rd years. In 1942, they KNEW they had lost, but it was not in them to accept the idea of their surrender. Mind realises the fact that is the truth reluctantly. The vital crushed by circumstances would obey the situation, if unwilling, but the physical has no understanding and the more it is crushed the more its obstinacy grows, a characteristic of the body. Before the Atom Bomb was dropped about 10 cities were totally annihilated by fire bombing. They would not budge. They did not give in even after the Atom Bomb was dropped. Only after the 2nd bomb was dropped the Emperor announced surrender. They are physical. In the prewar days if a child of less than 5 died no one would seriously mourn as to them it was a mere body; only the mother would cry. We do not mourn the death of cattle. A Spanish missionary was lodged in a village and was asked to learn the Japanese language. The government told the village that if he did not learn it in 6 months the whole village would be burnt. Death of a whole village was nothing to them. Even to the victims, their philosophy reconciles that fact. That is the reasoning of physicality in its concern for things human. Hence their cruelty. FDR had to order widespread bombing reversing his earlier appeal not to hurt the civilians because their physicality is an external circumstance that could reverse the atmosphere. Such people taking to a value, here Christian value, will attract circumstances directly opposite to it.

  • America is a self-luminous democracy from its birth.
  • She has inherited all the social institutions from Europe - agriculture, trade, commerce, manufacturing, education, money, military, science, research, transport, communication, technology etc. She has taken each of these institution to another higher level, a level characteristic of her role in social progress - evolution and we are to dwell only on that extension.
  • Apart from such an extension, she vested them with that power of hers Nature endowed her.
  • Of course everywhere the other side too, the opposite side lingered. We shall study how she has extricated herself from each such aspect.
  • Some of those dual aspects:

Democracy  - Desire to carry guns

Agriculture - fast saturation with scientific knowledge through agriculture universities.

Emerging individual - Vestige of crude, cultureless energy that seeks an organisation and original practical  knowledge.

Collective existence that - Flourishing collective economy sans clashes with neighbours army, proper paper currency and Isolationism.

Education - Shift from religious base that is a bias to practical utility characterised by an Edison.

Industrial Revolution - inherited its second phase of scientific  manufacture where the members of the  collective have developed a mentality of  inventiveness as against the scientific   inquiry of Europe.

Military - Started almost with no army but with a vast potential that can throw up a force of 12 million men and officers from a  mere 136,000.

Finance - Opposed paper currency, but created an abundance of wealth vastly distributed to the entire population, a goal of socialism of Marx through free enterprise but created  the Great Depression that spread all over the globe.

Head of State - From its inception had no vestige of Royalty but enjoyed a directly elected President by the entire population.

Social composition - Never inherited the class or caste rigidities from  the beginning, producing millionaires in the  first generation expressive of the individual achiever and a SOLVENT to the structural rigidity of elitistic social culture.

Revolution - Every nation matures in its collective, creates a  Revolution, passes on to the next stage. America almost started from a Revolution and is heading towards a world Revolution in many fields.  How she is going to acquit herself in the future can be watched. Or, America can accept a theoretical guidance from a study of the World Experience.

The aim of this work is to do this exhaustively, particularly comparing the American performance with that of France, Britain, Russia, Italy, Germany, Greece, China and India in earlier periods. We have facts and figures about America in a copious measure, but not about the comparable situation in the same magnitude and classified detail. Hence our findings will be largely theoretical, partially comparative and illustrative. I will feel rewarded if someone or some institution takes up this project at that level. Self-luminous objects do not cast shadows. Removing the shadows the object becomes self-luminous.

-America unconsciously created or is creating ethnic unity. It is creating Americans who are not British or German. This is a major step.

-World Armyis to be recruited from those who opt for world citizenship and no religion.

-A preliminary suggestion would be to create an European in whom the individual nationalities are merged. In view of the already existing Euro, this suggestion will be viable.

-A Master plan sponsored by a world organisation such as the World Academy to organise the world production by better co-coordinating the raw materials and production capacities will provide the economic basis for the world citizenship.

-Wherever there is friendship or absence of hostility as between Malaysia, Sri Lanka, India, the visa regulations can be straight away abolished.

-An Asian currency can be initiated on a parallel to the Euro.

-World Academy can moot ideas of coordinated world education, World sports, World citizenship, World currency, World communication, World transport etc. This may be straight away inaugurated between at least 20 or 30 countries. On this basis if a study calculates the projected increase in world production and world trade, it will be an incentive for other countries to follow.

- About 15% of international life in various sectors are now poised for coordination if not co-operation. A beginning can be made here

  • To have a common production plan
  • to abolish the visa regulations
  • to create a common currency
  • Standardisationof various types introduced will help the above goals. e.g. traffic rules, left handed driving etc.
  • Standards of education at the 5th, 8th, 12th grades in terms of contents can be set so that member nations can follow them.
  • If possible 2 or more countries can take an initiative to bring their armies under joint control.
  • An active student exchange programme approaching a goal of 5% of the student population based on merit, fully supported by Government scholarship will activate the young minds 1) to achieve a sense of transcending cultural, national barriers and 2) to attain higher academic performance. The USA is unofficially doing all this for over 100 years. Let us calculate that in terms of percentage and try to repeat it in the regional clusters. Indiacan offer her neighbours a higher standard of education. Sri Lanka, Malaysia, have good schools. They can offer backward students from the region Quality education. As it is an exchange programme cost will be mutually neutralised.
  • A world religion will be moving away from religion to spirituality. A non-secretarian GOAL of ideals of religious values can be offered as the core of world religion.

 Evolutionary leadership partial and total. 

    • Nature has acted in this world to generate collective power of a nation. It was done by creating Monarchs out of Robber Barons.
    • The succession of those barons, instead of going to those who led, went to the offspring of the existing rulers. It only served the purpose that inheritance of monarchy could not be sustained. Still, monarchy retained power for 2000 years through inheritance or outside it.
    • Power that shoots out as a forcible spring is evanescent. It will come to stay only when it is governed by an inner law, right or wrong. Thus might became right.
    • The laws of that might were the laws of the whole with respect to the continuity of organised power, even if it is not so with respect to the collective society over which the monarch presides. The whole consists of right and wrong of ethics, but for might it is entirely right. This was power of leadership, not power of the population.
    • The second creation is emotion. Emotion of physical people is passion, it was the passionate attachment to family, clan, community which sublimated itself into patriotism.

Selfish passion is cannibalistic

Family passion is crude.

Clannish passion is brutal

Patriotism is an honourable emotion

Dedication to mankind is an unemotional understanding of strength.

    • The third creation is knowledge
    • Knowledge at its first bouncing enthusiasm acquires the knowledge of the partial spirit.
    • Knowledge of the Mind is knowledge of what it can observe and what its emotions escape.
    • A process of ascent and descent constantly takes place giving the results in various fashion - creation of material tools, discovery of communication through sound symbols, discovery of the laws of matter, vitality, mentality and even spirituality.
    • Though its process appears to be at some senseless random fashion, looking from above, it is according to the pattern of the lower rising to the higher disregarding the rules of horizontal expansion and vertical growth, settling down to the form of a pyramid.
    • Theory of Social Evolution tries to fix the various lines of development by a code or law.
    •  From India Nature traveled to America via Greece, Rome, Europe passing through the stages mentioned above.
    • It will be interesting to study the areas where the USA is continuously offering leadership and the areas where she is slipping from that role.
    • The study can be extended to Europe, Rome, Greece, Mesapotomia and India.
    • The completeness of the study will acquire comprehensiveness if the history of the world is interpreted in this light.
    • Now, it is time for the leadership to move from its partial poises to the steady status of the whole, an integrated whole.

J.M.Roberts gives a brilliant exposition of Marxism placing it in its own historical context in his 'History of Europe' p.387.

Marx's conception of property, his idea that the working class was the chosen people were taken up by European socialists. Before Marx it was the Frenchgenius Saint - Simon who conceived of it.

Marx's idea, though exalted and universal, turned into terror and a failure as it was from a German whose personality was violent.

As Marx's idea became violent, America's use of money value expanded into the negative expression of Depression.

Propertyand Moneyare basic concepts. Liberty and Freedom are non-material concepts of such value.

To consider from the smooth progress of future social evolution such concepts and arrive at the right balance will be enlightening. They are,

Physical - Property, Military, territory, raw material, water  resources

Vital  - Power, Money, transport, communication, sports, commerce, Banks

Mental    - Rights, Law, liberty, institution, Democracy, equality

Spiritual  - Values of physical - honour, Values of vital - courage,Values of mental - reliability, integrity, honesty

It is note worthy that the contribution of Britain to the world is Democracy, an institution born out of trade, their main strength. It is equally noteworthy that she had not made any intellectual contribution to the world as the French have done with Liberty, equality and Fraternity.

Germany which made a philosophical and musical mark in history could only contribute negatively in other areas. Her main stamp was to create two World Wars so that wars could be abolished. Even Marx's socialism resulted in the creation of a police state.

The major marks the USA made were her evolutionary role in social progress, spiritual awareness in the collective, especially the youth and the power of practical organisation well expressed in every walk of life including education. Beginning in production, extending it to military and research, the USA has covered practically all sectors of life with her STAMP, the practical organisation.

Studying the positive and negative contribution of each nation, or atleast each region, to the collective progress of the world will help us to

  • better comprehend the role of each century in the life of the world,
  • Construct a kind of scale of national worth in the wider context of progressing world.
  • locate where we are in Indiawith respect to future prosperity.
  • Draw a Master Plan for the future World Union, a plan of economic production that will defuse political and military conflicts and help abolish terrorism at its very roots.
  • America too was responsible for the Cold War.
  • The Secretary of State withheld information from the President - Truman.
  • America had awesome powers, 15% economic growth, never reached in history.
  • American isolationism was followed by the role of the USA to help the whole world survive with its productive capacity.
  • After the devastation of the war, the climate too was harsh meaning the suffering during the war was necessary and was not over with the war.

Hitler and Stalin were blood thirsty. Hitler caused the war and Stalin created the cold war. Our enquiry does not end there. Any event has two contributors from two opposite sides. If this is true, how shall we understand the Allies? Consider the following facts.

1) All the members of the Allied with the sole exception of the USA were imperialist powers in some measure or other.

2) The Allies had defeated Hitler, before his defeat their sympathies were with Hitler.

3) Life does not reward you for what you do, but for what you are.

4) As long as Imperialism is the Allies' cause and conviction, it is natural they meet with a similar impulse from the other side.

5) Any possibility of the Cold War not being there after 1945 could have arisen only if the Allies had shed or sublimated their imperialist convictions. The movement of decolonisation of Asia and Africa arose more out of the imperial powers' inability to hold on to the colonies and the pressure of the world opinion than out of a changed conviction on the part of the members of the Allies. In their belief, the Allied remained imperialists which was the justification of the cold war.

6) The productive machinery of America registered 15% growth - a height world economy never touched - and proved to be the economic alternate for the military might of the Imperialists.

7) It behooved on the USA, the leader of the free world to maintain the role of military imperialism in some economic form.

8) The constitution of UNO could not be on the democratic lines itself shows that a rational, idealistic solution to the post war world was not contemplated at all.

9) Of the two, the offender and the Victim, the right side and the wrong side, if anything good is to issue, we can only expect it from the right side. The Allies, the right side had NOT contemplated JUSTICE to the world in any measure or form. Whatever good happened, happened by the external pressure, NOT out of INNER realisation.

10) A movement of external pressure is a process of compromises far from perfection.

11) An inner movement can have the real powers of the higher justice and has the possibility of containing the evil of the other side. The world had not met with such circumstances after the war.

12) Victors were greedy, not fair, each in its own way, Russia for territory, members of the Allies for other privileges than the military. Cold war became an excuse for the Allies to seek military bases all over the world. The reason for that was mainly Soviet expansionism. But we cannot overlook the economic fact that the over production of the USA needed a market. In these circumstances the cold war survived 45 years.

  • Democracyremoved royalty and began to distribute the political power to the masses in an increasing measure.
  • Technological advance did the same in distributing the economic gains of the society to a wider public.
  • Tradeand Commerce came neither under politics or economics but belonged to the unconscious power of the ever-vigilant society. Only in the measure they fell in line with the aims of democracy and technology did the society succeed in distributing its wealth.
  • The money power represented by currency became a field of production of wealth and served the causes of democracy, technology and welfare in the measure the society awake to its reality.
  • That power or force that combined the centres of democracy, technology, welfare and finance was education. A nation benefitted by its democratic rule or technological advance only to the extent it is educated.
  • Educationhas a dual role in the sense education awakens the individual and the awakened individual seeks education in the measure of his awakening.
  • Democracywithout values degenerates into dictatorship.
  • Science without values discovers monsters.
  • Technologywithout values helps capital accumulate at the top and creates Depression.
  • Educationwithout values creates cultural elite which by the gaps its creates from the masses is the source of Revolutions.
  • Culture is the final product of evolution of any society.
  • Culture is preceded by ethics.
  • Ethics is made possible by prosperity of a non-pugnacious nation.
  • Non-pugnacity is the result of overcoming physicality and vitality in their provocative intensities.
  • Ethics develops philosophy.
  • Philosophy leads to Wisdom without power.
  • Power accrues from wealth and the honourable codes of warriors who have either defended their borders or conquered other nations.
  • In the absence of either, the innate strength of the nation ripens into a culture of Spirit. Such a nation is only a theoretical possibility.
  • Spiritual democracy, psychological technology, alert society that absorbs its higher wealth for the benefit of all, Moneythat represents human integrity having crossed human production of goods and service, Life education that is subtle and embraces the occult world will combine to awaken the Spiritual individuality in the future Man.
  • 90% of the US population favoured rationing if it were necessary to feed the hungry in Europe.
  • During this unique period of giving, anti-Americanism increased in the world.
  • Ikebelieved ignoring McCarthywill destroy him.
  • GM chairman was appointed DefenceSecretary of Ike- Charles Wilson.
  • Upward mobility ABSORBED all revolutionary energies in the USA in all the 5 centuries of her existence.

The collective urge for self-sacrifice for others is more than noble. In particular individuals a noble sentiment can rise to any height permitted by his own constitution. In a tank of 10 feet water, there can always be a pit deeper than 10' say 15 or even 25'. To raise the whole tank to that depth the quantity of water required is considerably greater. It can be from two reasons given below. If it is possible to specifically know that, it will go a long way.

1) Overwhelming prosperity enjoyed over the generation makes one generous all over.

2) Deep cultural or spiritual values long inherited now surfaces and in spite of the present hardships insists on expression.

Affluence, privation, affection, offensiveness are individual as well as collective experiences. The first two are physical but opposites; the other two are vital and opposites. We can think of similar mental endowments too. The physical abundance of water enjoyed by one over the generations as he was born on a riverbank will be a collective vibration. Suppose he was the only child who was pampered with plenty amidst scarcity, it would be an individual experience. Each has its own intensities in breadth and width of experience. The Americans grew up among plenty for centuries and it was there for everyone and in every walk of life. Such a past can give rise to this generous emotion. Or, as a nation they had been industrious with a sense of self determination, an exercise of the physical will to achieve. In the early days of the settlers each one met with circumstances that revealed to them the value of a morsel of food or a mouthful of water. Spiritual awakening at the physical plane could have treasured that sensation and made it unforgettable. Either of these can be at the bottom of this response. For our purposes of theoretical comprehension, it will be of great significance to know the particular reason here. Such generosity usually is well received, does not create the other response of animosity. Still even here the measure of giving, on occasions, can cross the limits of the original good feelings. In the measure of its outgrowing the good feeling, the response will be reaction. Personally it is a great exercise in psychological education in subtle relationships. Edmond Dantes after 14 years of unprecedented education, abundant attention and rare unexpressed love of selfless purity, doubted the Priest's sanity. After overcoming that doubt, he still wondered whether he could receive that wealth which offended the old man. It came from Dantes' poverty in childhood and it is inescapable. The information above sought is invaluable for those who study the development of emotions and sensations in the collective.

There is a vast data bank about Aid over the past 50 or 60 years. The idea of Sri Aurobindo about the unregenerate vital's unwillingness to be under an obligation can now be studied in greater subtler detail. What is true of aid, is true of any action. Its development along the physical, subtle physical, vital, subtle vital, mental, subtle mental and spiritual planes have a straight line of growth. Apart from that there are reversals at each point of transition. For us to theoretically codify its progress or expression is easy. To get examples for each principle or sub principle from actual facts will create a body of literature very valuable to this Theory. Let me quote some random examples.

1) The one imminent impulse of the receiver is that he does not need it or the giver has the need to give.

2) Even in the meanest characters the urge to compensate or at least speak so is ever present. He becomes gravely silent when he is aware that one such expression is ultimately detrimental to his present benefit.

3) As soon as the purpose is served, the impulse to assert negatively is irresistible. Meaner characters offend at that moment without fail.

4) He who ran after a prize all his life at the moment of receiving it exclaims "You have been at it for long".

5) He who has been receiving copiously demands, as if by right, more with a vengeance and threatens NOT to receive anymore.

6) Active organisation to excel the giver in his status is one universal experience. It is the opposite vibration that has to be there.

7) To convert the help one begged for long and piteously into betrayal is another pattern.

8) Life is apt to present occasions for the receiver to feel superior in a given occasion. That is the moment, he would be in his element.

9) They take poignant pleasure to inform the benefactor how they betrayed them. There is pleasure in delivering the blow and witnessing it well delivered.

10) In executing these plans, invariably one gravitates to their former enemies.

11) The desire to go back to those mortally offended by one when the other rises in status is equally powerful. Mostly they are moments of asking for help or advice.

12) Mind is resourceful to dig out of life events that justify the receiving of help from another. It may be material, psychological, social or spiritual or imaginary. But it will always be there.

13) To give for the joy of the other's enjoyment is a noble sentiment not known to human being. It is self-giving that raises one out of the human act.

14) These responses do not need time - days or months. They are instantaneous, because they are subtle.

15) Liars find their resourcefulness fully available when they exercise themselves along these lines. Fictional literature rises to its height in their exercise.

16) One common occurrence is to needlessly humble oneself as if humility is gratitude.

17) Even in such an exercise there will clearly be discerned a strong thread of self-assertion.

18) Man, upholds himself high in his own estimation is an everlasting truth. 

McCarthy passionately opposed the communists for what reason we do not know. His opposition became an obsession in him. It is first the counterpart of the obsession of the communists about capitalists. The communists were hunted down in every country. In 1917 when Lenin captured power in Russia all the Allied nations that fought Germany turned their guns at Russia for 4 or 5 years. Russia was poor, had no resources and less organisation. Tsar sent the soldiers to the front to fight without guns. They were to overwhelm the enemy with their physical bodies. Desertions were great. It was a war weary nation. Lenin got the support of the people mostly because he offered to withdraw from the war. It was his offer of peace that was more attractive to the masses than Socialism of which they had little idea. Now they were to fight the Allies of 17 nations. It was a Witch-hunt. The fear of Socialism was universal from 1900, Churchill when he met Stalin in 1943 told him that he had tried to crush the USSR in 1917 but could not and then he came to seek her support against Hitler. Russia was a mighty power of Europe not based on her productive capacity or the efficiency of her army. All along she was a great power while France rose to that status in the 18th century and Spain attained it by her American conquests. Britain's empire accorded her that preeminent position. But Russia was always a great power of Europe and she continued to be so till 1990. Very soon, a study predicts, she will again be that. Her strength was her mysticism, the vast area, the greatness of her people, the reputation of her Monarchy. Neither Germany, nor France could drive her beyond Moscow. In the post war she restored her economy refusing the American help that was offered to all war devastated European nations. Her vitality is invincible. During the regime of the Tsars and the communist role of 70 years her vitality expressed negatively as suffering, tyranny, cruelty, mass killing. No wonder the communists were obsessed by the ubiquitous capitalist. There is no use expecting such a person to be rational.

  • In a subtle sense McCarthy's obsession is an extension or reflection of the Russian communists.

Ordinary men will oppose such irrationality tooth and nail. Wise men know any opposition to him will only increase his own strength. Periyar announced that he was going to tar the Hindi names on the railway name board and ordered his party men to do so. It was a great occasion to DK as there was total support from the people. Rajaji was the Prime Minister (the present CM's post was then known as the Prime Ministership of Madras Presidency). He ordered the police to let Periyar do it. The wind was taken out of his sail. The agitation died in one day, dying its natural death. McCarthy was under a possession as Don Quixote. Eisenhower was a politician when he was the General. His was a ripe Wisdom. He ignored him. Ignoring such a force has one direct unfailing consequence. The force released comes back on the source as it is self-destructive.

  • Any force is destructive. Forces released in an unnatural atmosphere is self-destructive.
  • To have that discrimination - which is destructive and which is self destructive - is a measure of political wisdom.
  • One releasing a powerful force when there is no visible goal outside to attain, it means, he is subconsciously aware of the need for self-destruction and he acts on that impulse.
  • Hitler's calculations were right. Had he won, there would have been no surprise, but Mother's force changed the atmosphere in such a fashion that it could change into a self-destructive force.

Political leadership

The government that insists on rules, regulations, qualifications, training, experience for the jobs in the administration, when it comes to politics permits any man to occupy positions of leadership regardless of any of these, even minimum educational qualification. This is a paradox or a mystery.

Political leadership essentially consists of making important decisions. A man who is incapable of making such right decisions all along his career, could not have arrived at the post of leadership is the assumption. Such a man generally travels to the top via the parts. Party politics, as far as the history of government is concerned, is of recent origin. The leadership of the country was meant for the royalty. Before the royalty was ever created, it was for the military leader. Party politics is in the field for about three centuries. Party represents people, particularly people of negative intensity. Even to rise to the local leadership ONE has to win over the local elements, particularly the negative elements. The positive side is won over by ideas, work, possibilities and ideals. The negative side is won over by the corresponding power inside. Men who rise quickly from the local level, quickly level off too. One phenomenon witnessed over the millenniums is, one who is fitted with the elements of leadership rises to the top very early. Caesar, Alexandar, Napoleon rose to eminence young, in some cases as young as 20. It is one thing to be an enchanting orator and another thing to be a mass leader. It is not only oratory, mechanisation, seniority, administrative ability, not even courage and love of adventure that makes one a leader. It is the inner strength to ride rough shod over the negative brutes. Even that is not enough, when the leader does so, the followers must adore it. That is the quality of leadership. During the second WW the CEO of TVS was invited by the government of India to serve as joint secretary of the department of transport and commerce. Kennedy invited the President of Ford to be his Defence Secretary. Similar was the case of Eisenhower inviting the chairman of General Motors, Charles Wilson known as Engine Charli as his Defence Secretary. It is true long experience gradually gives the ability of leadership. It is also true that one with a quickness of Mind for successful right action acquires leadership soon when he is active in the field. Army or politics demands instantaneous decisions. If they go wrong the man falls on the wayside. Where they work, men below look to him for more and more decisions. When one is rooted in Mother's consciousness and is conscious of it at the moment of taking a decision, he can observe the inner movement where SHE takes that decision. It is always right and is unfailingly right.

Paul Johnson who has a mass of facts, almost massive in its quantity and quality, has the opportunity of drawing an historical inference from them. He rarely does so. In this case he pronounces a principle that the rising standard of living absorbs almost all types of social conflicts or stresses. For our purposes, coming out of his mouth it is a valuable statement. The Theory can take it one step further:

  • The harmony of the central thrust of social progress can dissolve any amount of obstacles, contradictions, conflicts, stresses and strains as all of them are subordinate movements.
  • We see in Irelandthe ethnic aspirations never subordinate themselves to the nationalist urges of Britain.
  • In Indiathe Hindu Muslimdifferences subordinated themselves to the urge for Freedom to some extent.
  • In Japanthe traits of Samurai would not bend its knees to the vicious onslaughts of the American air force.
  • In the USA the religious fundamentalists, the various ethnic groups even when they are on edge, readily throw them away to pursue the goal of rising expectations.
  • The DMKdid so on two occasions. Once it gave up its demand of Dravidanadu, again it shed its anti-Brahmin stances, both in favour of larger national issues of Indian integrity and a Career in democratic elections.
  • The cause of the First World Warwas Germany, her imperialist aspirations. We see her scientific advancement, ethnic differences, Philosophic impulses, religious urges were readily subordinated to the national ideal of imperialistic hegemony. In the second war Hitleradded a further dimension of racial purity to give the movement an insurmountable momentum. It worked to unleash a war, conquer Europeand not further.
  • Japanwho knew of the lack of supply she had was willing to throw herself into the fray because the tradition of Samurai was untamed, almost it was a RAW physical urge. Sri Aurobindosaid she was a young imperialism. Should she by any misfortune succeed, she would take 500 years to overcome that impulse. Germanyhad an inferiority complex in that regard. Hence her vehemence. Spain, France, Britainand Russiarose to European preeminence in succession. She was not. enjoying neither the mysticism of Russia nor the intellectuality of France she was disqualified. Nor was she a sea faring nation like Britain or explorers like the Spaniards.
  • J.M Roberts says the Palestinequestion was more to do with Westernisation, modernisation and changing economic relationship than the religious issue.
  • He also says the Jewshad social and legal gains in the FrenchRevolutionwhich Hitlercancelled. The Palestinequestion became hot by the persecution of the Jews by Hitler.

America is the one country where almost all the ethnic groups of the world live in unity. This new nation was created so that the ethnic, religious group would over come their separate identity and evolve the world citizen. Germany's stand in the two wars was directly against this ideal. In the first war it was implicit, but in the second war it was explicit. The Israel-Arab question is, thus, the residue of the world war, even as the cold war was its subtle vital extension.

  • Therefore the SOLUTION lies in completing Westernisation, modernisation, and raising living standards.
  • Demise of the cold war is the political solution for a military conflict. Its residue in Arab-Israeli issue can be solved by an economic strategy which is already working well in the USA.
  • Theory dictates it, practice confirms it. Ireland is a recent example.
  • In that sense all military conflicts have at their ROOT the Arab-Israeli issue. Once that is solved, the world will be ready for lasting Peace and an army of Peace.
  • The acuteness of September 11, 2001 if traced to this ROOT by a steady study and research will be a pointer to abolish terrorism altogether.
  • It is interesting to see that Kashmir, Palestine, Ireland are the residual issues of Imperial hegemony when we recall that Hitler rose against the world urged by that imperial impulse.
  • May be this approach will imply that the extreme action the USA took in Iraq could have been avoided. The democratic solution the USA is trying in Iraq may, in itself, be inadequate and only an economic solution will meet the needs of Arabs.
  • From the Theory point of view, solution to any issue must be sought after from every angle - population, climate, geography, history, politics, economics, past events, religion, technology, military, etc - It is worthwhile to study from all these points of view to see the validity of the Theory.
  • We can also look for the parallels, if any, between such extant conflicts. It will throw light on the solution. In Kashmir a straight single legally valid issue was converted into a political issue by the invasion of the Pathan tribes.

Lawcannot handle the issue, conceding the rightness of illegal invasion and then submitting it to UN arbitration. Conflicts originate in conscious irrationality as the World Wars. The right solution in Kashmiris to drive out the occupying Pakistan forces outside Kashmir. They will not rest quiet till Pakistan exists. She must be invaded and liquidated. It is the Egyptian army that invaded Israelin 1948.

Theoretically there should be a similar solution in Palestineand Ireland. UK created ulster so that Ireland will drive the Englishout of Ireland. Kashmirhangs on fire so that Pakistan will rejoin India.

Such issues do not admit of half-hearted solution through peace talks. One has to crush the original irrational move by a head on collision.

The Cuban crisis -Theoretical explanation.

      P 618-620 'History of Europe" J.M.Roberts.

  • Khrushchev exposed Stalin in a secret speech.
  • In spite of Czechoslovakia - Hungary - Berlin etc Khrushchev showed signs of Thaw. It is a great positive initiative from within USSR.
  • Suez canal issue by Eden's ignorant initiative, Hungarian suppression by USSR arose as the realities of the cold war atmosphere.
  • The USA made a foolish CIA move in Cuba - they were inwardly weak.
  • Khrushchev who was weak in ICBM took an initiative with CUBA.
  • J.M Roberts says Cuba was a turning point that led to the restrictions on nuclear testing.

In the most oppressive atmosphere which is a real impossibility there will be a silver lining if only the right man is willing to take the right initiative. The above is an example of the wrong initiative of those who were weak materially and psychologically which was turned by GRACE as the first positive step for clamping restrictions on testing.

The USSR was outdone in ICBM one to six by the USA. They are weak in arms. A weak man will start the TROUBLE. The mess Kennedy made through CIA's misinformation and miscalculation was because the USA was psychologically weak - weak in its motives and intentions.

Gorbachev in a similar atmosphere took the right initiative from within and lost his job.

  • Kennedy in 1963 and Khrushchev in 1964 were removed.

Mother says both were removed as both wanted to serve the cause. It is true a foolish man can take only a foolish initiative. As Shakespeare wrote his master pieces in tragedies because 400 years ago life was dark, both men with good intentions took wrong initiatives. It is worth noting the result was positive.

  • Hitler's wrong initiative led to great good through the greatest of catastrophes.
  • Churchill took right initiative in the face of impossible hazards and succeeded.
  • Mountbatten's unwise suggestion to go to the UN for Kashmir hangs fire. Perhaps in the end it will reunite Pakistan with India.
  • The intention of men, the character of men, the character of the situation all together will decide the nature of initiative and the nature of its outcome.

Sri Aurobindosaid that the organisation of Europeis so perfect that a child will destroy it.

J.M Roberts is naive in describing history as European history.

This is a fine example of 'limit of rationality'.

Greece and Rome led the world. Leading does not mean Greece is all the word. Today the whole world is Americanised, but Europeans are shy about the way the Americans conduct themselves while in Europe. Philosophically the conceptions of heaven and hell are not profound. They are conditions of mind not places of resort. Suppose the Indians feel today that India has come to an end it only means that their superstition of one form has shifted to another form. What is changing is fashion, not life. For 3 or 400 years, if Europeans have considered Europe is all the world, it is not praiseworthy that they should celebrate the demise of that conception.

  • Sri Aurobindo said a child could upset the continent of Europe. As there were peaks of civilisation in China, India, Greece, Mesapotomia, Rome, Europe had a period of similar eminence. The moment America opened up, the death knell to European rigidity was struck. The world wars completed it. Not Europe, no country or no continent can lay claim to history. It belongs to the world and Man. It goes beyond the world to earth as environmentalists have now begun to feel. The heights to which mental development has reached in China is there for any intelligence to see. The philosophers of Europe pale into insignificance before it. The European dwells constantly on Suttee and child marriage of India. It is true that Suttee is cruel and child marriage is uncivilised. A little thought into the origins of these habits will reveal that the world will take a millennium more to conceive of such possibilities. People who have not taken bath for over a century could describe themselves as civilised is the rationality of 2000 AD. Thousands of Jains were killed some centuries ago in South India. Now we see millions of Jews similarly killed in Germany. They both should be seen in perspective which is not a conception of present day Europe.
  • As civilisation advances the other side too will get organised and present its face hideously. The whole of Asia and her mysticism has this knowledge implied in her civilisation though not explicitly lived. Europe's development is mental, American development is organisational. Such a conception is beyond their purview.
  • Roberts' candid explanation is not illuminating candour. It is pathetic superstition. Reading Robert's after reading Paul Johnson one feels Roberts is profound by comparison as his facts are presented through ideas and thoughts. The care he takes to avoid expressing an opinion is of an equality and objectivity of a spiritually mature soul, almost a Rishi. His last chapter sounds like Popes' 'She lost her husband and hat'.
  • To the reader it is a profound revelation: So serious a scholarship can co-exist with so shallow of concept. Again it proves the principle that the presence of one demands the presence of the other.

The most influential writers of this period are not sociological critics, but the dispensers of uplift.

Uplift wanting nurtured self-reliance and revolution.

Dale Carnegie's trade was upward mobility. His book sold in millions. He wrote on how to stop worrying and start living.

Vincent Peae wrote on how to win, confident living, positive thinking and through his books reached 3 million people.

Billy Grahamcommitted to revitalism reached 350,000 people in eight weeks. His stress was not on sinfulness but on opportunity.

FultonSheen's 'Life is worth Living' got him a fan mail of 10,000 lettersa day which Indira as Prime Minister was getting.

Life is multifaceted, complex, but an integrated complex. To incomprehension it looks complicated.

  • Johnson's book on the USA gives a plethora of statistics which I am afraid does not exist in India or does not exist in this copiousness in other western countries. A scholar finds them a ripe, fertile pasture, if only he has a perspective. Put in the right perspective his figures take on the confirmation of principles. The prolific statistics of this type itself shows Brahman in figures. Still, it simply is not possible to envelop all life by facts or figures.
  • A society is a live organism. If the temperature in the mouth is 98.4F, it is the same at the end of the toe. It cannot help showing at all points. Upward moving is the urge of the hour. It is seen in the slums by their moving into the middle class in so short a time of 7 weeks for the alert. It is seen in the founding of colleges as soon as a settlement arises. From a college to agriculture university to a full fledged university, MAN, the awakened individual moves without wasting time on his own, without any outside prompting. A village of 300 becomes a city of 800,000 in 50 years, a feat that needs 5 centuries. Elevators appear, are operated by hydraulics, shift to steam and to electricity. In 1900 there were 3000 elevators in one giant city. The urge for upward movement is present in evangelical field, free thinkers, athletics, banking, politics, education and everywhere. The nation is on the move, it is carried on a wave of energy that is Nature's - it is evolutionary upsurge.
  • In a country of one billion population a Prime Minister gets 10,000 letters a day. A TV speaker gets the same in a population of 200 million population.
  • One who has the theoretical perception must be able to see this VIBRATION in action in one day - any given day - in all that he meets. It is surely possible, but cannot be quantified even with a mountain of figures. It is a sense. The French thinker De Toqueville had it 100 years ago when he said that in 100 years the world would be dominated by two powers - the USA and the USSR which came true in the post war decades. Because of that perception his book remains in print for 170 years. He was sent there to study prison life, but what he saw was the soul of America flowering in dynamism.
  • Should India have similar statistics, and a book like Paul Johnson can be written now, it will have the effect of 10 Five Year Plans at the same time. Every Indian can be as dynamic as Man can be.

The human potential is there

The social instrument that reaches the Mindis needed

Because Indiahas that additional spiritual advantage the change here will be like switching over from horse-riding to plane traveling.

Piracy was considered manly

Today bribe is not only taken as income, there is a subtle pride and satisfaction that one is after all serving in his own fashion. The corrupt officer has a subconscious pride in bribes and attributes it to his pride and capacity. (p.353. 'The Birth of the Modern' - Johnson)

The modern society was born after Napoleon's rule (P111.'Birth of the Modern', Johnson)

Science had become a passion after Waterloo (P.543.Ibid)

Pure idealism differs from social idealism. Idealism, as other things, exists at various levels. Honour is a great virtue. In the physical people it centres around duels. Johnson's statement that piracy was considered manly is a great illustration of this principle. During the days of pirates, it was a very adventurous. It is likely that the best of individuals of those times mistake their sense of adventure that expressed in piracy for courage and valour.

  • Capacities and values get mixed and one is mistaken for the other.
  • As honour can be a physical value courage can be a vital value.
  • A corrupt official is usually more resourceful than the average officer. It is quite possible for him to mistake his corrupt activities for his resourcefulness and feel a pride over that. Generally it is subconscious and therefore more powerful.
  • It is a hilarious riotous comedy when a person devoid of culture conscious of his capacities instructs a cultured person who is shy of displaying his capacity.
  • The formation of values, skills, capacities rising from the physical to the spiritual passes through many stages of different consciousness and substance. The infinite varieties of human endowment taking form and losing form in various stages of social stability is an enjoyable observation. Bribery and piracy, thus, had their hey days.

Napoleon came to consolidate the gains of the French Revolution. Half way through, he gave up Josephine who was his subtle support, moved to the idea of dynasty. It was given to Germany, Russia and Britain to contain him. Scientific invention becoming a passion after Waterloo can be seen as the freedom of mind in action in the field of practical knowledge. Johnson says Modern society took birth after Napoleon. From the mouth of an inveterately by prejudiced Johnson, it is more than an acknowledgement of Napoleon's evolutionary role.

Any positive force gets blighted by the negative external circumstances. It can receive the impetus for crushing even from his own self. The instruments of conversions are many. Chief among them is one's own ego. In Napoleon megalomania was the occasion. The study of the evolutionary Man in Napoleon separated from the vitiating influence of his own ego and the circumscribing effects of the outer society can be a full-fledged study of the process of progress inner and outer as recorded material observations of those periods are available in abundance.

German nationalist uprising had been as potent a factor as any other in the final overthrow of Bonaparte

Sri Aurobindo says it was given to Germany, Russia and Britain to undo Bonaparte. He rose, consolidated the gains of French Revolution extended it to most of Europe and fell. In a smoothly flowing stream of social energy, forces of function arise, serve the society, come to stay. The Nehru family entered the nationalist politics in the twenties and remained at the top of it, till the end of the eighties. The Nehrus were of the same level of national aspiration. They served the national cause and the cause served them. This is a perfect example of like forces serving each other in harmonious growth. Nation needed a leadership which the Nehru family provided under the protective umbrella of Mahatma Gandhi. 

Napoleon is an evolutionary force. For that reason he is far ahead of the society. His entering the French politics energises the political field, wins impossible victories in war, extends the French influence widely. This is so because his own build and energy is far greater than the field he operates in. As his rise is meteoric, so his fall too will be. When the evolutionary impetus is lost, he outlives his usefulness but remains a huge dead colossus. To remove him forces stronger than usual are needed. The three nations provided it. That service raised all of them. Germany wielded great power in the subsequent period, Britain built her empire, Russia remained the greatest of European monarchy. As he fell ingloriously so all the three of them fell in the 20th century ingloriously. This is a law without exception.

A naughty child will ruin himself if left to himself. It is necessary to discipline him. Mostly discipline is well rewarded. He turns out to be a good useful citizen. The hard process of disciplining eliminates the child from the parents. As soon as the child grows up he will leave the parents never to return. If culture prevails, he may not leave, but in his emotions he will be totally lost to the parents. At the time of the parent's death, invariably the child will not be there at the bedside.

Parents of great personal strength capable of infinite compassion and patience shape such a naughty child without punishment. Those children grow to be greatly dutiful and affectionate. In a negative situation, the parent exhibited enormous strength and kept the harmony of the atmosphere which enabled the process of transformation smooth and without backlash. It is the power of harmony available exceptionally in historical events. Tides move because of rise and fall. Otherwise there will be no motion.

Here we see one more reason for the two World Wars of the 20th century. Though they are not the prime mover, we see one contributing cause.

Christianity was content with a solitary hate-figure to explain evil: Satan. But modern secular faiths needed human devils, a whole category of them. The enemy to be plausible had to be an entire class or race (P.117. Paul Johnson in 'Modern Times'.)

  • The above is the reason Johnson attributes to the holocaust. There is a theoretical truth in it if only one element of it. Everything grows in some direction. There is no aspect of life that stays put. Nature, not being moral, is indifferent to the direction of growth but grow it must be. We can even say, it can grow small tending towards the infinitesimal. Sri Aurobindo gives this argument about death. At death life does not cease. It only reverses. Decomposition sets in.

According to Him there was no evil created. Evil is the creation of the egoistic perception. What is once created grows in some direction till it bursts or dissolves. What Johnson says here is the process of growth from the idea of a simple figure of Satan to the entire community of Jews. At its height, at the holocaust, we may say the bubble is burst.

  • We can say the same thing about Gandhiji's Satyagraha. There is no spiritual truth in it as he explained. He was a great personality and he carried enormous power of intense charm. By that power, his fad grew and it seemed to support the Indian Freedom Movement. When Indian Freedom was actually won, though it gave some semblance to the claim of Satyagraha, it was won by other far more powerful causes. Two of them were

1) The victory over Hitler brought to the fore the cause of colonial nations most powerfully. It was a foregone conclusion before the war ended. As its representative - almost as it was - the Labour Party was put into power. This was the positive side of the argument. Negatively, Britain was unable to hold her colonies financially.

2) The Royal Indian Naval ratings raised the banner of revolt and were on the road in Bombay. It was February 19, 1946. Attlee announced in the British Parliament the Government's intention to send a Cabinet Mission to India to confer independence on India.

  • An example from the USA will be the hatred of paper currency. It was foolish and openly counter progressive. The movement grew to ferocious heights and closed an important Bank. The attack was launched by the President himself. It had to die a natural death, having grown to the maximum height.
  • History is full of insignificant, ignoble movements of short or long duration of this type.
  • As yet no principle or idea has emerged in social life that does not have the other side, because all these movements are born of Mind which suffers from the trait of duality innately.
  • The French Revolution is another example.
  • Marx's idea of socialism and communism is yet another.
  • The hippie movement of the American youth is a noble expression of breaking the rigidities of the established society, but it started ON its OWN negative expression. It grew to its height, broke as many ideals as it could and was reabsorbed into the society. At its destructive hands fell the institution of marriage. Leaders of that movement in the sixties and seventies are now the leaders of the Western society. Now they have started knocking at the edifice that science is and are presenting the other side of the materialistic field, mysticism.
  • In the USSR the forces worked in another fashion. Leadership from inside the monolithic communist party announced self-destruction - a historically unique event.

The energy of the American entrepreneur has absorbed the energies of cruelty Leninwas unleashing in the USSR(Modern Times. Johnson p.212).

No labour or socialist politician held an elective office in the USA.

There were more business men than politicians in US cabinet.

Corruptioncan 'serve' a nation.

Albert Fall received $400,000 to grant oil field leases and was jailed.

Later the same oil fields served America to build vital pipelines in Mexico.

Woodrow Wilson's wife used to forge his signature on the Bills.

American writers were unreliable even about the President till 1939.

Babylonianluxury was greater than that of the USA in 1930when her per capita rose from $522 to $716 from 1921 and 1929.

The major idea that is subconsciousnessly preoccupying the world conscience today, is the spectre of terrorism when the Cold War ended. Obviously it is a dangerous phenomenon. As one major problem is over it rears its head in an unexpected fashion in a more terrible form elsewhere, where one cannot predict.

  • A rule of life is what obstacles one faces must be accepted and out-lived. Otherwise it gets neglected, suppressed. It has to have a lease of life. It grows under the carpet and rises of a sudden. Terrorism is one such phenomenon. At the demise of Cold War, it was said there were 26 interstate or intra state conflicts. What Johnson says here - the energy of the American entrepreneur absorbing the cruel energies of Lenin - is a knowledge world has. The politicians of the World are not unaware of it. Right leadership, right awareness mean to come forward to use the knowledge one has. Today this truth is once more abundantly proved in Ireland.
  • Man does not act even in the areas of his knowledge unless he is compelled by circumstances.
  • It is a striking truth that no labour or socialist politician in the USA holds an elective post. To repeat what Marx wanted to achieve by confiscating the means of production is achieved here by giving the individual the circumstances to create and own the very same means of production. Doing by the individual what was intended for the collective, revolution becomes evolution if the individual is willing to take the evolutionary effort. It is worth raising the other principle here that the collective evolves while the individual rebels. Both are true, again bringing out the validity of the LINE in evolution.
  • No wonder the US enjoyed promoting more business men than politicians to the cabinet. Business was frowned upon in England and Europe in the 18th and 19th century. For very different reasons in India business was looked down upon. Government job had status not running a shop. In both places one cardinal rule was overlooked.

Business in these centuries was evolutionary. Agriculture was by then a dead force. Salaried employment was innately dead wood. It can never now or in the future become dynamic or revolutionary. Creative men create business. Dead men operate it.

There is no justifying corruption from any point of view. Still the theoretical point of view will reveal more than others as it is an unfettered view.

  • Our points of view are social justice, moral validity, ethical viability etc. Whatever view it is, it is one structured view. It cannot be a view of freedom. No Theory will be valid if subjected to any structure.
  • Whatever a man does, ultimately it is his personality that achieves. In other words, all the forces in a Man can only serve the ends of his personality. By extension all forces good as well as bad in a nation will ultimately serve the stage of development the nation is. From this understanding the USA was, in this period, in the growth stage. So, even corruption will subserve the cause of growth. Here we see a reversal, corruption serving the nation. There is no activity, small or great, where this dimension of reversal is not there. Awareness of this reversal everywhere helps master the Theory. To reverse that reversal is power over social evolution.
  • Corruption here may be a major or minor reversal. War is the most profound event of this description. Sri Aurobindo could cancel the Cuban crisis, Korean crisis in the subtle plane and Mother did so with the Chinese, but before the War Sri Aurobindo saw dark forces rising. He could know it, could not remove it then.
  • Writing the history of any one nation or that of the world from this point of view is a mental advancement in subtle accomplishment. Such a knowledge abridges a social evolution. Woodrow Wilson's wife, while she was the first lady used to forge his signature. This event is no mere occurrence. It is a symptom. That symptom can instruct a man not to take ladies to the Paris conference. Such symptoms enlighten vastly, help understand the measure of reversal. In 1919 Churchill spoke in the British cabinet that they should catch Lenin and Stalin and hang them. He was an imperialist and he speaks that language, but when in 1943 he had to go to Stalin for support and confess that in 1919 he had tried to crush him, it shows it was Stalin who was in the ascendancy and Churchill's speaking indicated he had to submit to Stalin later.
  • It is a serious opinion that the Modern Times was born on 19th May 1919 when Einstein's theory was tested in the solar eclipse. He was unsatisfied when two tests were successful. That was his scientific rigour. He wanted a third test.

The Theory, if it fails even ONCE in any respect need not be accepted. It must always justify itself.

That is the rigour Life Response offers. Because the field is subtle it can be more rigourous than the physical plane.

  • Scholarship, correct reporting of newspaper, collection of right statistics not bogus ones, truth of historicity, capacity to separate impression from reality etc are aspects of mental intellectual life. Till 1939, even about the Presidents, American writers were not reliable. It only means that their concentration till then was on prosperity. It was a period when the USA was rich. In saying so Johnson says, of course, she was not as rich as Babylonians who enjoyed a high level of luxury. During those days historian Will Durant lists 5 capitals that were thus rich and adds that Delhi too must be in that list.

Prosperity that is vital can reach any height even when the society is physical.

To extract the general truth from here will be 'Any plane can raise any aspect of that plane to any height regardless of any other condition'.

Role of literacy in Prosperity.

Prosperity preceding Depressionwas very great. 'The country is in a sound financial condition'. Walter Lippmann's comment.

Steffens 'Both the US and Soviet systems are justified'.

The comment of the President in the Congress 'Increasing production is absorbed by enlarging consumption'.

An old survey of the World Bank in Asia has found a 13% increase in agriculture productivity in farmers who were educated for 4 years. The American settlers had a considerable portion of literate Europeans. They came there to accomplish what they were prevented from accomplishing in Europe. Settlers of the first wave grappled with survival. Subsequent waves were determined to achieve. Most of them brought with them the awareness of the value of education.

  • Literacy plays an important role in accomplishment.
  • The higher the literacy, the higher the accomplishment.
  • Appreciation of literature makes the highest accomplishment possible.
  • The basic external condition that enabled all these is the higher wage-10 times higher.

At the era of Coolidgethe most important single development was the spread of education.

Between 1910 and 1930educational spending rose 4 fold. Higher educationspending too rose fourfold.

Those were the decades when the Book of the Month Club and the LiteracyGuild were popular.

More books were bought than ever before.

There was a persistent devotion to classics.

David Copperfield was rated as America's favourite novel.

Among the ten great men in history voted were Shakespeare, Dickens, Tennyson and Longfellow.

Among other things David Copperfield represents the aspiration of the Americans. David's trials and tribulations were those of the American settlers. An inclination to literature brings forth the higher faculties of the Mind, incidentally it expresses in prosperity as a higher success. Obviously those who vote for these great poets were not neo literates. It appears that these settlers had taken up the European thread that would have come to them after several generations. Descriptions of prosperity of that period are very impressive and breathe taking. Workers buying second hand cars ignoring the unions was the symbolic index of the period. The President speaking in the Congress describes prosperity that is self-multiplying indicating that the production had no limits and the consumption had set no limits on it. Nowhere do we hear people referring to the past, they constantly and unconsciously looked to a better future.


Prosperity covered health, security, material goods, knowledge, leisure and aesthetic appreciation. They spoke of ever-widening distribution of the blessings of civilisation. One comment was

  • The country was in a sound financial condition.
  • Another man went on to justify the Soviet - system in the context of a successful American system.


Those who are looking for the real causes of Depression - economic or social or otherwise - would do well to look at these descriptions. Is it possible to discern any symptom of a future crash? It looks as though this ripe mature economic well being prompted or provoked forces of the opposite description to activate themselves for a free for all they could not otherwise dream of.

Society can indulge in such freaks in many ways as each positive aspect has its negative one. They settled on the great power of MONEY which was serving the nation intensely and seeing that society had not developed any legal mechanism to clamp any restriction of any description, resorted to consciously destroy the monetary system. They ended up destroying a flourishing economy.

- The contents page of the Encyclopediaof Social Development.

Reading dozens of articles on The Depression, one theme recurs unfailingly. There is no consensus on the cause of the Depression. People may not agree on several things in hundreds of years. It is said if Moses had sought consensus on bringing the Jews back from Egypt, they would have still remained there. What one should seek is not consensus but a Right Logical Explanation that is Reasonable. Logic and Reason claim precedence over consensus. Sri Aurobindo said even after the birth of the Supramental Being, there would be a human residue.

  • It is rewarding to see that from 1929 scholars are trying to discover the cause of  the Depression relentlessly. It is the beginning of self-awareness. There is no answer yet. It means the aspiration to question is there, but humanity has no idea of what is happening to it. For 75 years there is no answer, but the world has overcome the Depression itself. There is progress. It is unconscious.
  • Our approach is to discover a theoretical explanation of the Depression. They speak of discovering the cause. Are both the same or different? Discovering the cause is personal, a theoretical explanation is impersonal that includes the personal cause. It raises the wider question of what the Theory is.
  • Theory is to knowledge what information is to data. Theory is organised knowledge organised as principles, laws or truths. It is essential knowledge in a codified form.
  • Where do we begin? Is there an end? If so, what is it. Knowledge is a mental view of events of life. One who is in a higher plane can have the knowledge of a lower plane. To devise the theory of Social Evolution, one needs to station himself above the society, i.e. in the universe. It is the knowledge of the whole about a part of itself. No part can ever hope to have the knowledge of the whole. It will arrive at a caricature that is ridiculously humorous.
  • Do we have any guidance in the scholastic life? The life of the scholar is after facts. Its pride is specialisation. Its direction is the opposite to theorising. Aristotle went after essential knowledge. Essential knowledge is of existence. It is philosophic knowledge. In the West philosophy is divorced from life and has degenerated into its part, logic. Quest for wider theoretical knowledge has not acquired momentum after the days of the Greek philosophers. What has happened since then is horizontal expansion, not vertical growth. The entire scientific enquiry qualifies for that description. The Indians went after the Spirit. Though it is higher than the Mind and in that measure will have a wider significance, there has been no conscious QUEST for such a knowledge. No attempt has been made successfully to discover a process of creation or its Theory. Should thinking come into its own, it should begin with a Theory of creation.
  • Theory of Social Development or Social Evolution can only be an extension or application of the Theory of Creation. It is a discovery of its PROCESS. A process is not the ultimate, essence is the ultimate, but for our purposes we can limit ourselves with the discovery of such a process. Can we discover the process without knowing the essence? A process can be arrived at from below, from its parts or from above from the essence. The lower effort is laborious while the endeavour from above is easy. As we have the knowledge of the Essence, the Brahman, if not the Brahman itself, an effort to arrive at the theory from below will not be a labour for us. We can present our findings to co-workers, if any, in the field without drawing upon its direct relevance to Brahman.
  • Science rules human thought. No attempt is made to discover the theoretical basis of science. Earlier literature was all knowledge. Even then no attempt was made to bring to the surface how literature is created. The fact that the Western Christian world was complacent about the Bible story of the world that it was created in a week shows THOUGHT was not born in the world, at least the thought that sought the ultimate cause or its process. The Origin of Species was sold out on the day of its issue which shows the great eagerness for knowledge of the collective Mind. Maybe it is the first attempt at inquiry and in the broadest terms, the evolution of FORM. It is the widest effort, but not a comprehensive one as it disregards the evolution of consciousness. The three formulas of Natural Selection, Survival of Fittest, and Struggle for Existence set the context, the entire context without one essential ingredient - consciousness.
  • As of today that is the very best we have before us, but it is incomplete. It will not serve any purpose beyond discovering major trends, will not help discover the Theory.
  • Theory is the one phenomenon behind several similar events. The sun rises every day. From this eternal phenomenon we declare that the sun rises in the East every 24 hours. This is of the celestial bodies. Hunger kills people is another such that we know from observation. The essence we extract from such events are given the names theory, principle, law, rule, custom, tradition, etc.

Scientists have observed and determined with the greatest possible accuracy that the sun rises in various hours, days are long in the summer, short in winter, the variations are determined by the slanted axle of the earth, these variations have northern and southern extremities, the temperature of earth is determined by the position of the sun, that change in temperature influences the wind currents on earth, the rainfall is determined by that, etc. Though not declared as a precisely predictable science, weather forecast has come into vogue with precision in the West. They use a scale of temperature, an instrument to measure it, a scale of wind velocity, another scale for measuring the atmospheric pressure. Any theory or law needs such scales and such instruments. They are indispensable.

Hunger kills a man is a general observation. Medical science has a vast array of facts, scales, measurements, instruments around this one phenomenon. The process of hunger, when it arises, why it is there, how it expresses, what symptoms show it, how food is digested, assimilated, absorbed, how long man can survive without food, what are the constituents of human food, how it is converted in the stomach, intestine, blood has all been studied, recorded, indices developed. There are measurements for the level of sugar in the blood, its pressure, its bile content, its level of white corpuscles, hemoglobin and several other things. These help the doctor to diagnose.

Economics is the science of production, distribution, and consumption. Imagine the factors involved there. Production in quantity, productivity in quality, productivity of technology which has an expression in the machine and another expression in Man, movement, character of it, speed of it, efficiency of it, variations in each of these factors, distance of movement, type of transport that moves, the terrain over which it moves, the weather that envelops the movement, etc. This is only a partial list and only for movement. The list itself is very long covering the whole of human existence. To make each item of the list exhaustive in terms of its environmental context will expand our basic list to a few thousand items. How many of these can be put on a scale? What instruments have to be devised for their measurements? How these indices relate to the other corresponding indices in the related fields, etc. is a vast hinterland out of which an academic infrastructure of several types is to be created and STANDARDISED for widespread use.

  • To pronounce on the cause or causes of the Crash, we have ALL the facts we need, but these scales, measurements, tools are not yet there. There seems to be no thought of their necessity among the community of economists. Very little can be done in their absence.
  • Economists will be happy to hear of

the economic cause of The Depression

the day on which it took shape

how long it persisted

when it actually disappeared

what are the causes, expressions, indications, symptoms

the capacity to predict its duration, intensity, spread, type of repercussions in each field.

  • With the above scales and tools, these questions can be precisely answered as Einstein's formula was tested for its validity in the solar eclipse to the second.
  • In their absence, the general principle can be pronounced with exactness, if not accuracy.
  • In past events, more can be said, if not all, as events have already occurred.
  • A cause and a result consistently related is a law. It is general.
  • For each result various causes can be traced.
  • For each cause various results can be traced.
  • Their combinations are endless.
  •  Measurement of the components of causes leads to precise fixing of results.
  • Measurement needs tools.
  • Measurement has a theory.
  • Measurements can be of quantity, quality, area, weight, etc.
  • Each type of measurement may demand a different type of tool.
  • There is a LAW that correlates the causes and results. Again it is quantity and quality.
  • Numbers play a very big role in these measurements.
  • Mathematics has the biggest role in this sphere.
  • Prediction is possible when a field is thus covered exhaustively.

Money is a centralising force that became social power in the last few centuries. Such powers can expedite social progress. If wrongly used, can destroy social progress, can even destroy the society.

  • Money is a medium of exchange.
  • It raises the social energies of human work to social symbolism of power.
  • It makes man produce more than is necessary for his consumption. In that measure Money makes Man selfless.
  • Money is an organisation with all the components of social existence and therefore any one of the components can influence its life. E.G.

Time is one such component. Moving Time quickly can multiply money.

Communication is another. A better tool for communication can create more money in the society. The very introduction of cell phone can raise the prosperity level of that society. We can thus write about 50 or 500 other influences on money.

Can there be measurements for each. When it is there, will society MEASURE them?. Time is measured by hours. Production can be measured in terms of Time. Do we know how many hours are required to produce a pen or a sheet of paper? When we know, do we employ such a tool with advantage to further social progress?

In the 1929 Depression my understanding is MONEY's power was wrongly used on all parts so that social forces were released with destructive vehemence.

  • If the above measurements and tools are there and the society acquires the habit of using them as we use the wrist watch, we can go back to 1929and locate the hour when the crisis was born, trace it along its various lines of development and even in the beginning say how long it would last and largely have predicted the course of the Depressionover the next ten or twenty years. Its greatest use will be to know what is happening now and how to abolish Depressions from the field of economics.

This is a random sampling of the role of the Theory in economics spotlighting it on the Depression.

  • Social Evolution is mainly on economic lines
  • But every other field determines it as much.
  • These fields are politics, military, trade, technology, education, religion, entertainment, sports and most importantly, the Individual.
  • Scholars recognising these fields and their value can set about creating the infrastructure for research in all these fields. So far no guidance was there in the form of a perspective for such research. No research is possible without knowing our ground. Now that a Theory of Creation is there and it can be applied to Social Evolution, it can be used as a starting point, a point of improvisation if not of final unquestionable validity. Creation of scales, tools, measurement, validation of hypothesis are all an engaging field. Should we write all of them down, it will become a contents PAGE of a Development Encyclopedia.

Let us pronounce on some known facts in the measure possible. Its amplitude is great from 1) Inevitable 2) Eminently possible 3) Conditionally possible 4) possible if no new factor enters 5) rare possibility 6) impossible.

  • After the Royal Indian Navy ratings mutinied in February 1946, Indian freedom as indicated by that symptom was inevitable.
  • Indian political climate responding to Satyagraha in 1919 was eminently possible for two cardinal reasons 1) the magnetic personality of the Mahatmaand 2) the Spiritual climate of India.
  • In 1942 the Cripps Mission offered Dominion Status. Had it been accepted by the Congress it was eminently possible that Partition could have been avoided.
  • The DMKresponding to Rajaji's proposal for active and full participation in electoral politics was an example of conditional possibility. Anti-Brahminism we could have said in 1950 would fade away if the DMK had responded to that invitation.
  • In 1940 Japancould have succeeded in her imperial ambitions if the new factor of US participation had not appeared on the horizon.
  • The USSRbecoming a proletarian democracy was a rare possibility.
  • The demise of the Cold War directly opening the door for the USSRto become a full-fledged democracy was impossible.

Above we took finished events of the past, located one cause and one result and tried to establish a relationship. Such an approach cannot enjoy the status of a theoretical explanations.

  • For a thousand years Britainwas ruled by other countries after which she became a free nation. Her fighting for the FREEDOM of humanity issued from that vast potentiality.
  • he Indian Ambassador in Peking, Sardar K. Panicker said that Chinachoosing to be a dictatorial nation rang true in the light of her millennial past. No country or culture will be in a position to adopt a new political structure overnight. It is natural that she inherits the past. The natural, we note, is not inevitable.
  • The tribes of Pathans that invaded Kashmiroccupied 40% of her territory, a veritable act of invasion. It is natural the legal process of UN arbitration never yielded results there.
  • The British were imperialists by circumstances, not by design. The British character insists on securing the good reputation of the world opinion. So, in most of their colonies they were mostly fair, non-interfering with local life, and offered a just administration. But their owning an empire generates imperial pride. If they suppress it in many places, it is bound to aggressively erupt in a few places. Irelandwas the beneficiary. No wonder they met with little success there. IRA is still alive after a century of Home Rule and Ireland Republic.
  • As long as the defence industry is active in the industrial world, we can emphatically say, the armed conflicts all over the world will not abate. They need customers.
  • Irelandacquiring an economic solution to the political problem in a vast measure was a distant possibility which by their choice became a distinct possibility.
  • Chrysler rallying around in 1980 was conditional on their taking the right decision.
  • GM who was a distant second in auto manufacturing before the war overtook the automobile king in the last quarter century because Fordconcentrated on engineering and GM on organisation.
  • Fordalmost caught up with GM now because they started making cars incorporating over a thousand suggestions of the customers, thus activating the component market, one aspect of organisation.
  • To use some of these approaches and to declare that the World Armyis possible is to move from the lower regions of development where problems are solved mainly, to the higher region where opportunities are created. To found a World Army is an opportunity, not an inevitability. To avail of the potentials there now and to create a positive organisation for the Future is definitely on a different footing. Its exhaustive consideration will be theoretically creative.
  • In 1945 the Marshallplan was such a possibility.
  • The politician acts when compelled for the benefit of his party. The statesman takes a creative initiative for the good of the nation. Creation of a World Armyis an idea. The World has all the potentials for a successful creation of it.
  • The future belongs to the Spiritual individual. A forerunner to him is a world citizen. A World Armyis the best possible organisational instrument to create an emotion wider than national patriotism.
  • Presently under the thin veil of the UN, the US Army is playing that role. In the process it generates anti-American sentiment. The World Armywill surely help to mitigate that undesirable emotion.
  • The legal sanction to the Private Limited Company only institutionalised entrepreneurship. Still, it is a big step in attracting the sacred savings of individuals for national production. The Public Limited Company is a far greater step forward. World trade will certainly shrink considerably today, if these two legal entities are not there. Here is a parallel to the World Army.
  • Suppose the World Armyaccepts a substitute of World Peace Army, we can put down into its constitution one major aim - to fully make the military technological advancement available to civilian production. The Army can then be used to promote projects of Peace.
  • The present NCCthat is optional can then be made compulsory in the educational system. A military discipline is salutary for the young. In third world countries it will upgrade the level of general efficiency.
  • The dirty Indian cities can never become clean towns unless the issue can be tackled on a war footing. Such a goal can well be served by this approach.
  • When we consider that the concept of a World Armyis a predecessor or forerunner to a world currency, it gains in significance.
  • Englishis fast becoming the world language unofficially. An official, formal endeavour in that regard is of great value.
  • The idea of each culture actively examining the values of another culture that are non-existent in one's own culture will activate world political social life.
  • What manufacturing is trying to do now is on the agenda for several other sectors. Of greater relevance there is education. Sports, scientific research, commercial coordination, creation of an international communication organisation will demand on the part of nations legislation for standardisation under more than a hundred heads.
  • We certainly do not have any organised international standard in education today.
  • World Armywill be a conscious initiative, as the UN. It can inaugurate the era of a hundred other conscious initiatives for world union to come into being. Do we have an international broadcasting system today or an international newspaper?
  • We do not even have an internationally acceptable system of medicine today.
  • The idea of creating an international menu in food will be of interest.
  • Many attempts are being made to create a World Parliament.
  • In short, every national activity has the option of being elevated to the level of international status. World Armycan be, in that sense, an initiator of an international movement.
  • An international civil service can be called for as a direct corollary of International Military Service.
  • An age of individualism in the field of psychology will be simultaneously accompanied by the Age of International Organisations, a possibility the Theorypoints out.
  • A financial policy which will not stand the scrutiny of the public is suspect - Here is a parallel to the official secrets act, an example of reversal. (P.236 'Modern Times' - Johnson)
  • The American experiment is a great advance upon the practice of the 19th century. This is genuine economic management atlast. The notion of deliberate controlled growth within the framework of price stability has been turned into reality. (P.237 Ibid)
  • As the boom continued, prices failed to fall, the consumer found it hard to keep up the boom. (P.238 Ibid)
  • There is some evidence that the increasing number of women in employment reflected a decline in real income (p.238 Ibid)
  • Coolidgeand Hooverwere proud that $1200 was the average wage. But they too said that $2000 was necessary for decent living.

The above 5 quotations speak out that the growth within price stability was achieved, prices failed to fall, there was a decline in real income in spite of women entering employment. These statements must make serious thinkers pause and deeply reflect on the following.

1) How can women entering employment lead to decline in real income?

2) When wages rose to $1200, a matter for congratulation, how does the real requirements rise to $2000?

3) What do we mean by the continuation of the boom? Why should prices fall?

It is true there was economic management, but it is equally true, it is not complete, Boom caused by price rise is the true Boom, Boom caused by falling prices is an exception, not the rule. To imply that a boom should lead to fall in prices will NOT reflect an economics of growth. Fall in prices is an exception caused by technology and rise in productivity, but the basic fact is,

Boom goes with rise in prices.

It is the rise in prices that cause the boom.

As the average price rose to a high level of $1200, it is true simultaneously expectations rise. They are in health, education, evaluation of one's status. Therefore the minimum needed for that is $2000. The economic management can succeed up to 80% or 90% or even more, but never 100%. At the last point economic management is bound to fail. The truth is economy cannot be 'managed' as is implied. The implication is the maintenance of statusquo. Economic growth breaks the status quo. The money manipulation to maintain the economic relationship of the various classes a counter revolutionary movement, is the SOURCE of the Depression. One can cause Depression, but cannot stem the tide of Social progress.

  • Theoretically the above facts clearly argue that the Depressionis a result of MAN tinkering with the Social progress through MONEY Power.

The stock market crash was the symptom and a result, the cause was the endeavour to stall economic progress through MONEY and its POWER. 

Cause behind the Great Depression

Its principle - Other examples in War, Freedom, Politics etc.

  • Progress is always possible.
  • Nature prevents partial premature growth.
  • Within that limit MAN does not exhaust the possibilities.
  • Man's progress is spoiled by ego, ignorance, superstition.
  • Society, public opinion, individual initiative can be a corrective in that area.

Depression : 1929 was the peak of Boom, the opposite of Depression.

  • It was an occasion for anti-social forces to exploit the atmosphere.
  • In a subtle sense they were serving the cause of reaction, destroying the immense progress to the spread of Socialism.
  • Johnson's book gives all the information needed for the theme. They have to be organised, made precise and presented. (P.236, 237,238 of 'Modern Times')

Other Examples

  • The USSR protected herself in 1917 and degenerated into a police state, but in 1945 she asserted her newly acquired military strength and put off the cause of progress by 45 years.
  • In 1915 Gandhiji consciously deviated the cause of Freedom trying to perpetuate Non-violence, an unpardonable indulgence of a fad. Its root was the final refusal of the Brahmin.
  • In 1919, 1935, 1942, 1947 Gandhiji proved to be an obstacle to Freedom.
  • Sri Aurobindo was to resort to an enemy of Indian freedom to win the war because of the betrayal of Gandhiji. As Churchill responded to HIM when Gandhiji refused, the final issue had to concede a pet idea of Churchill, the Muslim interests.
  • Roosevelt, Chamberlain, Cleamanceau, Hitler, Stalin each in his own way contributed to the second War. Their responses come under this category.
  • American Civil War is another instance.
  • Ireland is perhaps the typical example.
  • Allied invasion of the USSR in1917 was uncalled for.
  • DMK's entry into politics in 1962 through Rajaji is a positive example of avoiding a situation of communal tension.
  • Gorbachev's initiative in 1990 is another positive example of international significance, especially because it is from within the fortress.
  • Stalin's refusal of Marshall Plan Aid called for his expansionism towards the West.
  • Marshall Plan itself has strengthened the cause of Peace. Even that could have been administered so that cold war could have ended earlier.
  • Nixon's trade initiative with China was positive.
  • French Revolution precipitating itself and Britain consciously taking steps to escape a similar catastrophe in 1789 and again in 1917 are negative and positive examples of this law.

Methodology of Proof :

  • We must prove money manipulation is the prime cause, but we cannot claim it is the sole cause.
  • Scholars are citing stock market, price level, unemployment and several other things as causes or possible causes. There we must sift the causes from results and show it clearly. The secondary causes too must be so separated.
  • Going a step further, it is possible to prove that had they not resorted to 'economic management', Market would not have crashed. This can be conclusively done and we must try it with arguments, movements in the Market and if possible statistics.
  • Economy or Market is a social segment alive and alert. Its forces are many or infinite. One cannot exhaust the list. All that one can lay his hands on are prime factors. Economy does not change slowly in response to new forces. Unknown social aspiration suddenly arises. The scope of the present analysis is at best partial. It can never be a whole until the view is that of the Society, not economy.
  • Where figures are not available symptoms are there. It is not easy to locate them as one does not know what he is looking for.
  • A conclusive PROOF is worth attempting.

Depressionis Non-Being, far greater than all the high intensities of a booming economy (P247 Modern Times- Johnson)

  • Johnson reports about a dozen pieces of information which brings out - he too says that, he quotes another saying that - the philosophical fact that what is depression to economy is an opening into the infinite creativity of a society in dissolution.
  • These facts, inferences etc are of no avail to our basic argument that Depression was the result of Money power destroying Society. But for one, who is looking to discover society as Brahman nowhere will he get these facts collected and organised to prove that vision. They are,

James Thurbercalls them contrasts and ironies in New York.

  • of the 86 theatres only 28 were running.

            6' Neill's play had sold out even the $6 seats.

  • 1600 of the 20,000 taxies dropped out.

           The rest were much smarter and cleaner by intense competition.

  • Ritzand Pierre cut their lowest room rate to a humiliating $6.

      Waldorf, charging as before, was packed.

  • The New Empire state only rented a third of rooms. 'Many floors were not finished at all, merely big plastry spaces'.

      550,000 people already paid a dollar to go to the top.

  • The transatlantic liners were cutting their suite prices by a third.

      'Whoopie cruises' beyond the 12-mile limit ban on gambling were a roaring success.

      So was bridge with Eles Culberston selling 400,000 books a year and industry touching a turnover of $100 million. The new striptease dancers earned $475 a week.

  • Retail trade was the least affected.

Thurber stressed that for anyone who could actually make money or earn Depressions were the best of times.

The above facts can be endlessly expanded in all directions. It shows the vast social resource, particularly when there was unemployment, food queues. Compare 440 farmers digging wells on their own resources in 1970. In spite of a conscious destruction administered from the top, society had revealed this much of readiness and economic resources is yet another argument that there was no Depression, it was man made and the thrilling life below is pulsating.

  • Depressionis the delinquency of superstition that dissipates.
  • 'All people are most credulous when they are most happy' Bagehot, the editor of the Economist, who was the first to discuss business cycle. This is a profound philosophical truth on the lower side. Adoring admirers of a dominating leader, the coterie of a tyrant, members of a pirate ship, passionate supporters of an irrational chief, obedient children obsessed with submission, religious fanatics to whom fanaticism is faith, hen pecked husbands devoted to courtesans, docile wives whose strength is the absence of formed personality, one who is in love all share this credulity.

Romantic energy is undimensional. Its passionate intensity is a fervour of oblivion. Romance inspires one to think with the beloved's thoughts. The selfish senselessness matures in romance to oblivion and goes to the other side to adore what one should despise. Capacity to delight in disgust is the hallmark of a mind capable of exaltation in the presence of the object of love.

  • The lover sees love; to him anything of her is love.
  • Philosophically there is no evil in the world, everything is a Marvel.
  • The lover, in his blindness, rises to philosophic perception.
  • Greed acts like blind love, makes credulity the creed.
  • It acquires a velocity and acceleration in an inverse fashion - increasing credulity increases happiness.
  • Catastrophes have a captivating spell on the gullible.
  • America rode on the wave of evolutionary exploration of the higher reaches of Prosperity.
  • The immigrant was determined to rise.
  • Immunity faced him.
  • Infinity in him stirred.
  • To him success at the highest level was imminent.
  • Succeeding generations had this innate sense of the everlasting.
  • He saw the solution in-built in the problem.
  • The greater the challenge, the greater was his attraction.
  • Infinity defined itself to the American aspirant in anything he touched.
  • Life was one big adventure to him.
  • He sought adventure as he was actuated by infinity.
  • Never did he meet the nether side for centuries.
  • There is no fullness without the other side.
  • 1825 gave him a taste of it.
  • Man in 1929 created the whole life opening the negative side fully. Johnson records the rich resourcefulness of teeming prosperity in various levels.
  • Bagehot instinctively tunes in with his axiom.

The most durable of historical myths have very little truth in it - Johnson.

The Chairman of the New Englandpower company declared, "We have left the period of extreme individualism--- Business prosperity and employment will be best maintained by an intelligent planned business structure".

  • Charles of the American Institute of Steel Construction said the country could no longer afford irresponsible, ill-informed, stubborn, non-cooperative individualism.
  • Business Week said, 'To plan or not to plan is no longer the question. The real question is: who is to do it?'.

Individuality, obedience to the collective, dependence on the strong, independence of strength of knowledge, of clarity or ignorance or confusion, planning, individual and collective go with leadership, following, co-operation, resistance to accomplishment, egoistical satisfaction and a host of other things are the traits thrown up in work. The USA accomplished very much by unassisted lone work out of necessity which as a bye-product created a healthy individuality based on independent capacity to achieve. Having out grown that phase one is faced with the residues of that period - irrepressible irresponsibility of ignorance that takes shape as stubbornness which hates information that would dilute its conviction and question its attitude of non-cooperation. Life became collective in settled urban areas which are no longer the isolated wilderness. Work is to be planned in coordination without questioning its validity. In the process of such developments myths arise and they acquire the hue and validity of history. It is there for imaginative enjoyment, not for informed enlightenment.

  • Through myths, wild explanation, planned achievement runs a thread of law that is Theory.
  • There is no event, isolated or organised, constructive or destructive, that does not answer to a law, principle, rule, truth, Theory.
  • Strategies of accomplishment - individuality, planning etc - are determined by the composition of the context of work, admitting of no fixed pattern.
  • Man lives more fully in imagination than in actual life. That is why literature is great. NO one asks if the plots of Shakespeare are true.
  • Imagination makes the impossible enchanting.
  • Myths are truths of mysticism having the strongest hold on human imagination, not paying attention to their veracity.
  • The myths that contains no real facts or truths are the potent levers of human accomplishment which made our present civilisation possible.
  • Mysterious myths achieve miraculous results we are now proud of. Should one study them, they will be the germs of subtle knowledge and truth which will hasten the millennium.
  • Historical facts are of value for the scholar's records. Its myths are the creative centres of human energy that accomplished by its aspiration.
  • Myths aspire for miracles.

- Lenindemanded of the peasants the revolutionary response of industrial workers. Hence the violence.

Theory of violence

Violence is unwelcome. It is uncivilised. Societies avoid violence. War is the organised violence of a state against another state. But violence is an acceptable and even desirable tool for Nature when she has to plough through some of her earlier structures created for different purposes. Violence is suspect for civilisation which is a desirable harmonious flow of social energy. Civilisation can become suspect for Nature when her basic purposes are at variance with it.

  • Revolutions are occasions for violence to remove an encrusted form of government. The French, Russian, Chinese revolutions are of this type.
  • Slave nations rise in armed revolt against the conquering rulers thus expressing their disapproval by a violent uprising of armed conflict.
  • The elite of a society advancing too far ahead of the masses gives rise to a wider gap that is a gulf than the fabric can sustain. In that case to bring the rear up the methods become violent. Or to throw away the leadership violence issues.
  • Violence, cruelty, tyranny, torture are the strong measures of Nature to wake up child souls that are deeply buried in the flesh of the body. China, followed by Japan though distantly qualify or exemplify this rule.
  • Forcing the pace of progress of an individual or society one is in haste. His impatience results in violence.
  • Callousness is the attitude that accompanies violence.
  • Such a society sets store by an artificial value of honour, patriotism, loyalty, security while it is utterly indifferent to the wanton destruction of masses of population. These high ideals become a mockery as they were espoused by a people of low consciousness. We see the loyalty of thieves, smugglers, pirates for the purposes of robbery, law breaking and predatory expedition. When Japan surrendered in WWII the dissenting generals ran amok killing all those who accepted surrender.
  • Faster movement than permitted by the context is violence.
  • Austerity is violence of discipline.
  • The victims of violence are capable of adoring the tyrant some times as the Serfs shouted long live Tsar when they were fired upon.
  • Superstitious repetition of mantras is a mental violence rarely suspected.
  • The physical immensity, the vastness of ever expanding social opportunities never offered the American citizen any occasion to grow violent. The field of violence is the fixed inflexible narrowness.

Shakespeare and Karl Marx

The Communist Manifesto of 1848 was fully received in spirit by the society. The concept of Socialism quickly conquered the world.

  • What Catholicism took to achieve in 15 centuries, Socialism achieved in 150 years.
  • By 1900 the whole world were expectant. Socialism captured the imagination of the world. Today the world is socialistic.
  • Had not the Indian National Congress accepted Socialist pattern, India would have gone communist through democratic election.
  • As the entire European intellect readily received the concept of biological evolution of Darwin, Marx was unquestioningly received especially by his detractors.
  • 400 years ago Shakespeare gave poetic expression to the truths of life in his tragedies. Iago, Othello, Goneril, Reagan, Lady Macbeth, Gertrude symbolised the crudeness of humanity he saw. His vision was poetic. His expressions were a melody, but his ideas were of the violence of darkness.
  • Marx pronounced economic truths in the field of politics.
  • Society itself was taking initial shape. There was no accumulated wealth. He was a German Jew, inherently violent. He never took bath, lived amidst accumulated dirt, filth and garbage in a litter and clutter. He aimed at power for the powerless. There was violence in his nature. Violence was in his mind. The social conditions demanded it. Hence Russia took up his idea.
  • It was before the World Wars disinherited the brutality of the physical.
  • Hitler's violence was rooted in his racial prejudice. Marx's violence issued out of a forceful idea for ahead of its time. Premature ideas preach violence.
  • The truth of social equality had no supporting substance in the masses except their willingness to accept the results without deserving it by their own participation.
  • It is interesting to see Shakespeare, Napoleon, Darwin and Marx together all espousing one theme in varying media.

- Today America is the leader. The USSRcould have led the world instead

  • The existence of Soviet Union was a highly relevant alternative to America's agony during the Depression. It was an astonishing actuality.
  • The Depression of 1929-30 made the American population lose faith in the business leaders of the USA.
  • The solidity of the USSR was an overwhelming discovery to the Americans.
  • Stuart Chase wrote a book called A New Deal. It ended with a question 'why should the Russians have all the fun of remaking the world?' The first Soviet Five Year Plan was announced in 1928. Nehru was impressed by her Five Year Plans and created the Planning Commission in India.
  • The Americans who achieved all were equally impressed by the USSR and in response to a call of 6000 skilled workers in Russia 100,000 applied .
  • Bernard Shaw found the Soviet prisons wonderful where human being were made. Convicts were unwilling to leave the prison.
  • H.G.Wells found Stalin a noble soul.
  • Stalin's barbarism and mass killings were not even known to Gorbachev.
  • The experiment of Russia was on the minds of all in the world. The world's elite were itching to imitate Soviet Union.
  • Gradually when the atrocities, police state began to be believed and the charm died down as standard of living never rose as high as in the USA.
  • It was no mean achievement that the USSR built herself refusing the US Aid. It was self-reliance which no other nation could exhibit.
  • Nature and history permit a cruelty and barbarism is not conceded by the human mind that is slowly getting civilised.
  • The USA kept up her lead as her standard of living was rising.
  • The 20th century is a century of rising standard of living. There is no force that can stem that tide. Man was not worried about issues, he was after greater comfort and convenience.

To him the rising standard is the rising status.

  • Today Ireland by her own innovations discovered the right lever for that in higher education, lower tax, foreign investment, full employment. The sick man of Europe of earlier decades has now crossed Germany and France in per capita GNP. Her age long rival the UK is left behind. This higher income can even absorb the terrorist energies of the IRA which it has actually done.
  • The 19th century was a century of imperialism, aggressive rationalism, the 20th century was one of Socialism and the 21st century is the century of the emerging Spiritual Individual.
  • The call of evolution is clear. No one can cross that path. Sooner the better for nations to discover that and fall in line. 

- P 277 Modern TimesPaul Johnson

' The Thirties was the age of the heroic lie. Saintly mendacity became its most prized virtue'.

Nehru, Shaw, Wells, Laski, Huxley could write about the humane conditions of the Soviet prisons, Stalin's nobility and childlike innocence and Gorbachev himself could not have an inkling of what was happening, what then are we to understand,   

  • We see Russia of 1920 with the eyes of 2000AD. This is one human illusive perception.
  • Life, private and public, does permit an appearance totally at  variance with its realities.
  • Those cruel realities were acceptable version of life for those who endured them.
  • What then was the human machinery that executed it? What was its value system?
  • This is the inverse expression of the spiritual truth that Her punishments are grace.
  • If everything that happened at any time is justifiable, does it not mean there is no evil in life? Then, was it a period when evil saved life? If evil too serves life, does it mean life is the ultimate but good and evil are the means?
  • Our approval of clean administration as against the corrupt public life is, then, an ignorance of the ultimate realities of the necessities of organising life, organising into a field of mentalised consciousness.
  • We consider ourselves RATIONAL. Can you examine its basis and evaluate it according to the rigours of logic and the requirements of Reason. I have been reading most of Johnson's books. His book 'Intellectuals' is superb. His analysis of issues, presentation of facts excel. Can we evaluate Johnson's personality by those standards? Better skill, can we subject our inmost faith and outer most behaviour to those standards?

It is simple that we should be rational to understand rationality and evaluate anyone's rational behaviour.

  • The need of the HOUR is a definition of rationality and a description of its various expressions that appear to keep up its standards.
  • Man feels 'Everyone else should be rational towards me'. It is time we examine its value for our own personality.

- Human atrocities are found in all countries with the variation of the local culture.

- There can be no violence or crime without a big lie behind.

- The dollar value of Mellon's purchases - of art treasures - alone came to a Third of all officially recorded Soviet exports to the USA in 1930.

- When emotions overcome thought negatively, it is done by fear.

- Koestler believed in Stalin.

- Stalin's violence was only a continuation of the violence of Peter the Great.

Atrocities are the expressions of power over the weak. Power collects when the structure of the society permits ALL its strength to accumulate in one spot. It is done for positive production, using it against those who have no power because they had given theirs to the centre, is an atrocity. It happens in all societies in the initial stages. As days pass on the centre of power expands to embrace the whole society when no atrocity is possible.

Atrocity is an accepted means of accomplishment.

To attribute it to this nation or that culture is no use.

In fact, atrocity to us is a process for the society.

It becomes an atrocity when viewed from the perspective of a later period.

Violence is a crude fast movement occasioning considerable waste and compelling a good deal of suffering. It is a process of unskilled formation of social capacity or individual skill. Violence becomes crime when the majority of the society have developed an emotional sensitivity - conscience - to orderliness and its defiance. Without a lie disorder cannot enter. Truth is order. So, to introduce disorder, one has to depart from truth i.e. resort to a lie. Hence Violence has a lie at its bottom.

As societies advance their entire power has a way of accumulating somewhere initially symbolically, later in actual fact, when Man comes to value a diamond or a prime property, he is willing to exchange his all with what he values most. Money enables the transition that is a transaction. A man spends his life savings on a single wedding. The Art collections represent the whole value of what a society stands for. Here a third of annual exports to one country represented the value of art collections purchased by one man.

Thought should rule the emotions. Emotions overcoming thought is negative. Thought energised by emotions is courage. The opposite can be fear. Arthur Koestler was a Nobel laureate. In spite of his proximity to the USSR, he could believe Stalin. It means the activities of Stalin had the widest approval of the population. Leadership can change, parties may succeed one another, issues may be the opposite to each other, but culture is of the society. It cannot vary. Peter the Great and Stalin did the same.

  • Silence sustains activity. Do we see this phenomenon in America?

In a gathering of hundreds of people, noise rises to a higher pitch is our experience. In a similar gathering in the West, you will be surprised to see the level of noise will be one tenth. Sometimes there are occasions for gathering and not talking such as an audience waiting for the speaker. In a western assembly there are occasions when such an audience awaits in Silence.

  • To speak out is emotional or vital instability because the vital energies are not organised to manage themselves. They are the raw issue of untrained unformed energies finding natural expression automatically.
  • Work organises those energies. Work that accomplishes organises those energies better. That organisation requires energy for its maintenance. There is no energy to throw out.
  • The physical working and its organisation into skill absorbs the excess of vital energy that goes to support the conversation.
  • Physical skill, vital capacity, mental ideas need an enormous energy to create them. After creation, they need equally great amount of energies to sustain them. This is one cause for the Silence in the West.
  • Organised work being harmonious generates less noise. Unorganised work generates noise out of the disharmony and the consequent friction. To examine these developments at all the levels - physical, vital, mental, spiritual, supramental, transcen- dental levels in consciousness and substance - will yield data to formulate the evolutionary planning.
  • The West has developed individuality which is different from manners, behaviour, character, and personality we know. Such an individuality resides in all the planes. The accomplishments of America is mostly out of such an individuality in the physical work. The creation of formation of such an individuality requires seclusion, isolation, retirement, being alone, solitude etc. His own evolution has made him independent of others as he is used to do his work. The organisation of such a work is the basis of his efficiency. It is also the foundation of his punctuality, regularity and his readiness to employ a system in his existence. To create such a system in his physical maintenance is essential. It is not possible without what is called the practical organisation. That primary requirement he has met. To let his own physically efficient system harmoniously dovetail with that of another or every other person is to

Create a socially viable vital coordination on whose base the nation can achieve worldwide. That will be their next step, if there is one for them.

  • What we consider rationality is the primary fundamental condition of mental attitude that will enable every other person to put forth his own ideas untrammeled. Such a rationality is the basis of mental logic. The logic of work is efficiency. The logic of life is Prosperity. The logic of ideas is to enable the efflorescence of collective thought issue out of a pioneer such as an eminent poet. Shakespearewas such a product of truisms of life. The next will be the truths of ideas, concepts on which life is founded such as 'It is truth that sustains falsehood' or ' Falsehood is a fine flower of Truth in conditions of darkness and ignorance.
The Power of Popularity

Society organises itself and grows, develops and evolves. These changes need energy. Such nascent energy must be first converted into SOCIAL ENERGY. This is done by the society accepting the available energy for its growth. The Muslims have rejected the income from interest while the Jews sought it earnestly. The power accruing from money lending is a neutral power. The Jews have made it a social power by according social approval. By social direction it becomes social force. Force becomes power by passing through an organisation. Social force becomes social power when the social organisation allows that force to work through its organisations. It is this social power that changes into social results through the application of social skills.

  • Money has become a social power like this.
  • Law, Army, technology, custom, religious dissension as well as religious tolerance, liberty etc. have become social powers through such processes.
  • Our topic is popularity.
  • Today popularity is a Social Power whoever attains it.
  • Press, TV, music, athletics, evangelism, politics, science, public speaking, publishing are the fora through which one attains popularity.
  • The USA has thus become popular in the world after the Second World War. The main reasons for her popularity was her military victories in the war. Looking behind that final product we see a chain of processes - productive power, organisation, Money, Money Power, social freedom, industry, adventure, independent individuality and a perennial insistent capacity to BE on the right side of life which is the side of social evolution.
  • The last point is the most important one: when an issue is to be decided, a problem is to be solved, an opportunity is to be availed of or anything is to be completed one is faced with the OPTION of progress and reaction. The American always chose that of progress.
  • Every American citizen has that attitude.
  • America symbolised that attitude. As a result of that she has become POPULAR in all walks of life.
  • The whole world values America and invests their MONEY with the USA.
  • Popularity makes for Power.
  • They achieved it by DOING what is to be done at home regardless of the outside world. Do your DUTY, the world will be at your feet is true of America now. That is incidentally the secret of life.

- The Universe individualises and the individual universalises.

       Do we see this phenomenon in the USA?

In the life of a country the government can be taken as the universal and the citizen the individual, if we for the present leave out the society at large.

For the universal to individualise, it has to retain all its characteristics and potentials in a greater intensity and in a micro unit. In doing so, it sacrifices its freedom of expansive space and everlasting Time. It is done by a self-choice to express a self-existent possibility.

  • The American, at least the early settler, was to himself, his own government in that he provided the protection which the police gives. His own individual existence was supplied the transport, communication, trade, banking etc. not by the government which never existed at that time, but he was to be innovative at that level out of necessity of circumstances. That gave him an ability as an individual which we call by the term INDIVIDUALITY.

Here we see this individuality transcends character and in one sense even personality. It transcends character as he could exercise no trait already processed. Personality is the ability of the innate potentials of the Being to rise to a new situation where the essence of character is to be applied afresh. Still, it belongs to Nature. Individuality is essentially spiritual, evolving or non-evolving. We may say the Personality in a spiritual atmosphere permits the formation of individuality. The essential difference between Personality and individuality will be the same difference between Nature and Soul though there can be similarities in structure.

  • Personality and character are structures of the force.
  • Individuality is the structure of consciousness or Being.
  • To illustrate human personality we may say all those who have created new forms of human life such as Plato, Marx, and Napoleon are carriers of Personality. Those who have created new forms of spiritual life such as Vedic Rishis, Krishna, Buddha, and Jesus are spiritual individuals.

The Spiritual individual I talk of for the 21st century stands between these two as a species of transition. The American individual is the physical version of it. Whether the vital, mental types are to be created, lived and outlived before the Spiritual individual can emerge, or he can straight away emerge including the lower versions in himself may be an area of his psychological choice. To be able to see the sparks of all these flashes in the daily life of the world is spiritual observation of it. The Irish man belonged to a precivilised state. He waited 2000 years to modernise his agriculture and still it remains to be done. But he responded to the IT and is directly catapulted to the highest income bracket through the offices of education and low taxes. The South American moved from the mule to the plane. Knowledge of the process of social evolution will certainly enable us to know the extent to which the future development can be abridged. It can also warn us where the pace cannot be forced. The theoretical knowledge is a power of social evolution. All that it needs is the appropriate strategy which is utter RATIONALITY.

  • For the physical to exhaust itself, perhaps, it has to exhaust its cruelty and violence in extension.
  • Behind the German perfection lies the German violence (P.304 Modern Times).
  • Hitlerwas opposed to the intelligentia.
  • In seeing a greater danger in Hitlerthan in Stalinmany intellectuals justified Stalin.
  • Lloyd George admired Hitler. W.B.Yeats and T.S. Eliotapproved of him.
  • Ramsay Macdonald had no car when he was the Prime Minister, nor did the Government give him one.

Cruelty and violence are the intensities of the physical substance. Therefore they too need to exhaust and themselves for that plane to be overcome. Cruelty is negative intensity. Violence is the act which expresses cruelty. The vital and mental too have their own intensities in the substance. The opinion that Mind forms is in its consciousness which slides down to the mental substance as a habit of the Mind such as japa. The habit is preceded by a construction, supported by an idea, directed by an opinion. When you try to give up a mental habit, you can watch the stages through which they pass. At the end, you will witness a mental habit in the mental substance. Its power of self-insistence will be self-evident. When man needs to be cruel or violent you can see how he draws upon the potential resource of such a mental habit.

Perfection is a power, violence has energy. These powers and energies are always neutral. They can be used at any level for any purpose. The Germans are perfectionists. That perfection needs exhaustive energies. There is no wonder the energies of violence are drawn upon for the purposes of perfection. The energies for the symphonies and perfection can come from the source of violence. Intelligence is a light, upto a point it can be neutral and serve any master. Its light can develop sensitivities and conscience, which is a great possibility. Hitler never wanted to take any chance with his missions.

Hitler is different from Stalin. Both resorted to extensive mass exterminations. At the bottom of Stalin's work, there lay a professed goal of a public good, socialism which will one day rise to undo Stalin. There was no such idea or ideal behind Hitler. Hence the preference. The preference can be as a policy not as a belief. Llyod George, Yeats, Eliots admiring Hitler was not out of foolishness or stupidity. It is because of the common cause of imperialism of which they were proud. Neither Eliot not Yeats was the idealist to denounce the imperialism of England, nor were they ashamed of that fact.

In 1930 US Army had only one car. Ramsay Macdonald was a Prime Minister a decade earlier when cars were not in common use. Being a Labour MP he was poor. The traditional conservative Government of England won't take the extra effort to provide the PM with a car when the individual was not rich enough to own one. Car was a status symbol then. Even after becoming the PM, the labour never enjoyed any status worth mentioning is symbolised by his not having a car.

- The American has no practical ignorance. He not only got over it, but has created a practical organisation to accomplish work at that level.

  • Their pronounced conviction is no problem is insoluble. They do not give up any problem they face.
  • Sri Aurobindo says we can overcome practical ignorance only when we have shed the Original ignorance which means shedding all the other 5 ignorances.
  • Is it possible? As infinity is different things to different people, shedding the Original ignorance for the American means with respect to the work on hand - the raising of a city 5 feet - he believes in God. That faith they have, whether they acknowledge it or not.
  • To start with the 15th century those who had set out to discover a new world, are certainly people who have more faith than any of us ordinary men.
  • It is true that faced with impossible conditions one is nerved to do as much. It is also true that not all people surmount the obstacle. In that sense everyone who set out to America was a pioneer.
  • Can we conceive of a body of men who conceived of raising a whole city 5  feet above the ground? It is an infinite Self-conception. We see there the touch of the Infinite.
  • The first ignorance they overcame was the constitutional ignorance which means the emotions and body should endorse what the Mind believed. Mind may understand there is gold in California. How does one enthuse himself to travel a 1000 miles through unknown territories? How can the body consent to that adventure? It is like mountaineering. But that is undertaken by a small group of people. Here a whole state, a whole nation was so created. In doing any work which is NEW the American has an emotion that will endorse his Mind and his body will consent to such an adventure.
  • When the G-8 met in Scotland terrorist suicide squads burst bombs in London and killed 45 people. This is a planned attack. Planned or unplanned, for the G-8 it was a surprise. Not to know what the other worlds have in store is psychological ignorance. Just after independence mass migration took place taking Government of India by surprise. Even the Chinese attack was such. In the million miniature adventures the Americans had undertaken over the centuries, this element of surprise is surprisingly absent or largely absent. It means the efficiency of their work, has the strength that includes that subtle knowledge.
  • As far as temporal ignorance, they always had time on their side.
  • They do not have the egoistic ignorance as their motto is always work first, work last. Their egos are not subordinated or sublimated to the work. Their ego is simply non-existent in their work.  
  • Cosmic ignorance is not to know the Cosmic Divine. To them Cosmos is their country. Their WORK is more oriented to their country than to their selfish interests.

- "Stalin, Mussolini, and Hitlerwere unanimous that the rights of the individual were subsumed in the rights of the state". (P312, Modern Times, Johnson)

-'To the Japanese mind there has been no conception of the individual as opposed to the state' is a statement of Ministry of Justice of Tokyo. (P.312 Ibid)

- The Japanese system arose out of an anarchy of terror.

- Cowardly Japanese and their brave women. (P314 Ibid)

- Hitlerwas impatient, the Soviets were patient (P.345 Ibid)

Germany was the first and indeed the only one to emerge from Depression.

USA is original, when they give up their European roots says a young  American writer.

The above are historical facts, if we ever need them for confirming the position of the Theory. The value of the individual rising on his own in America and achieving can be best seen when we see what happened in Russia, Italy and Germany. Two of them fought the Second World War to exterminate the individual. Russia did so after the war.

  • We speak of the emerging individual.
  • For him to emerge, the collective should exhaust its potentials and energies fully which means the individual should be crushed beyond recognition.
  • After the collective has exhausted its energies, before the formed individual emerges is a state of transition. It is potentially explosive where the collective is not there to lead and the pioneering individual has not yet born. The energetic persons become active, his dynamism settles down as anarchy.
  • Anarchy is the energy of the emerging individual.
  • Periods of transition will render the past ineffective while not being strong to support the future. The part is the collective, the future is the individual.

It will be right if we think about the periods of transition. The above is from the collective to the individual, the same power in macro and micro units. Transition from the Monarchy to Democracy is a change of system of power from the One to the Many. Army always has exploited it in an attempt to preserve the past. From barter to coins and from coins to currency are transitions of systems, systems in future will generate economic power. The woman's liberation is a transition from the male to the female of the same crude domination. Education admits of such a transition from subject to Mind (memory to thinking), teacher to the student. The emergence of organisation is such a transition from chaos to system. Tyranny to liberty is another. Priest's intermediacy to self-enlightenment was the transition Protestantism brought. Technology brings transitions.

  • Knowledge, power, organisation bring in transitions.
  • Transitions transfer the centre of power and action.
  • Transitions involve stages.
  • The emergence of stages is the change of energy into attitudes or organisations.
  • It is worth noting that at all points the infinity is endeavouring to emerge.

Japan is known for her physical courage. Johnson speaks of their cowardice, Japan was never a slave nation. Her independence was intact. Europe progressed in thought and along with it her institutions too developed.

  • In accordance with the rule of opposites we find in the Land of Samurai cowardice, pusillanimity.

In the putsch of 1936, we witness gruesome acts of treachery, cruelty, murder, assasination.

  • The Prime Minister was the target, but he escaped.
  • He was saved by his brave wife.
  • The Finance Minister was another target.
  • He was saved by the heroism of his wife, though injured.
  • The womenfolk in the exhibition of extraordinary courage revealed great resourcefulness.

Please note resourcefulness is the courage of thought untrammelled by the fear that shrinks.

  • A nation of courage reveals the cowardice of her leaders.
  • Their wives exhibit courage.
  • The law of the opposites go through more than one cycle.
Patience and impatience
  • Patience goes with victory and impatience goes with failure.
  • Patience being static allows energy to collect and enables success.
  • When a man of several failures is to succeed in one or two events, we see during that phase he exhibits patience.
  • He who exhibits patience for a long-term goal can be impatient for an immediate work, if that work is to be a failure.
  • The patience of the Soviet leaders indicates their victory in the war.
  • Their haste to industrialise the USSR in 1920 resulted in their goal unachieved.
  • Courage goes with patience and along with its right understanding.
  • Fear, terror, timidity, patience, confusion, wrong understanding and failure go together.
  • Patience can be seen as that of society or the public at the given moment. The more varied our observation the richer is our understanding.        

story | by Dr. Radut