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94)       Integral yoga institutionalizes Mother's values.

Life is wider than the Society, Family, culture, etc. History is a series of events. Man's existence becomes history when he had lived long enough worthily. Civilisation and culture are its higher versions as an end result of further longer living. For our purposes civilisation is organisation and culture is institution. Civilisation rises to culture when the values of life are integrated with its living. I call this institutionalising.

These are eternal values of not life but existence. They are the 12 Spiritual values* and those that emanate from them. Out of the 12 rise 1200 or 12,000 values'. One may integrate these values with his life by the process of consecration and see the elevation of consciousness from human consciousness to Mother's consciousness. For instance, I take GOODNESS. It is the knowledge of Truth. Truth is a great spiritual value even as knowledge is. What then is the knowledge of Truth? Truth is of the Being. Knowledge is of the consciousness. Both are the objective states of their respective subjective states of Being and consciousness. One's knowledge may be true or not. One's Truth may be out of knowledge or Ignorance; but when knowledge and Truth meet it is not possible for either to be imperfect. Suppose I stand in the witness box of a court. I can speak truly without knowledge. Or I may speak knowledgably without its being true. To combine both I should have a vast experience of the subject I speak of. I may err at any point. Or, I may have to have a deeper Truth possible in Spirit only. For a normal person these are not possible. Sincerity is a prime value of Mother. Standing on the dock, practicing sincerity in right words will come to me with a burst of light inside.

To institutionalise Mother's values in one's life, he must be doing this all the time. When Sri Aurobindo calls all life yoga, HE expects you to accept life inwardly and act in outside society according to the values of the society - the right side of the right values. It makes life into yoga, Integral Yoga.

Integral yoga integrates Man with the Divine.

It integrates the severed Being, Consciousness and Ananda in our life.

We are thus integrated with the higher side of social values in life.

To achieve that, our parts of being must first be integrated.

In each part the knowledge and will are to be integrated.

There are two parts in each part - consciousness and substance.

They too must be integrated.

It is to integrate the surface with the depth.

This process of integration brings the soul and Nature together in integration.

In one sense the integration of the bad with the Good first transforming bad into good and later good into GOOD is the greatest of integrations.

Even when we reach the subliminal, we are not rid of ignorance and division.

Only when the Superconscient and the subconscient meet in us, the conscient, the right integration takes place so that it may ascend to the heights required for fulfilment.

85)       Concubinage is an age-old institution in China.

            Wherever Man comes into affluence, there concubinage raises its head. When a poor man is successful, the very first thing he does is to acquire a concubine. In this section we look at this phenomenon from the point of view of institution, how a certain habit matures from the individual person to rational way of life. When the society grants its seal to it, whether it is right or wrong, good or bad, it comes to say. It is institutionalised. To know that part incidentally we have to know some, if not all, aspects of that act. George III was on the throne when the American War of Independence was waged. He had fourteen children. He was deranged for ten years during that period. When he recovered his sanity, the queen remarked to him, "You would not have lost your senses had you been like other men seeking extra marital relationship. You were loyal to me." That is the truth behind concubinage. Man is not made for one woman. He overflows in his energies, especially in his passion for woman. No tree produces one seed or 10 seeds to propagate itself. It is always in thousands, in hundred thousands. To ensure that one or a few seeds sprout, Nature produces an abundance of seeds. Biologically that preserves the species. In the early millenniums society discovered the value for marriage. In those days there was no marriage. Man was promiscuous. It resulted in contagious diseases spreading and ending human life at 30 years of age or beyond.

  • Monogamy was not so much a moral institution as one aimed at the health of the human body.
  • Nowhere in the world in those periods did the woman have an earning capacity except in the working classes.
  • Man's passion, woman's need for economic support gave birth to concubinage among wealthy men.

Institution is a middle place, perhaps the fifth place in the chain of Act ....Consciousness. There are very many allied questions to the above statement. 1) What specialty is there in China for concubinage to come to stay as a flourishing national institution? 2) How does an act or an activity spread in a society? 3) What is its relationship to morals or Truth? 4) The one aspect of life that has proliferated like concubinage is corruption but the society has always overcome it. Why? 5) What is the difference between the forces that actuate from behind corruption and concubinage? 6) What differing roles are played in this institution by Man and Woman? 7) Is Romance any way connected with concubinage at the physical level? 8) Is it a social phenomenon or human phenomenon? 9) How do we understand that in the context of dissolving marriage? 10) What is the role of multiplier effect here?

The 1000 principles we have put down here as principles of Social Development is a fertile field of academic research for the future. One may say most of them have been known for long. A subject becomes Science when it is salvaged from being an amorphous, unformed body of knowledge vaguely endorsed by the society to its being governed by a set of valid principles, established logically and reasonably.

  • That is the path of creating Science.
  • Humanity evinced the greatest possible scientific interest where its discoveries have directly led to greater comfort and convenience in material living. Social Development will mature into SCIENCE if mankind is equally interested in its own psychological well being.

86)       An institution is an uncentralised organisation.

            In the chain,

Act - Activities - System - Organisation - Institution - Culture - Custom - Usage - Consciousness,

 the fourth stage is Organisation and Institution is at the fifth. It is a stage of transition, a process of growth. It takes place at the level of

  • Organisation,
  • Authority
  • Hierarchy
  • Strategy
  • Centralised authority changing into uncentralised non-authority (the pyramid into a flat structure)
  • from one central head to many individuals having their own authority.
  • from outer exertion of authority to inner values urging to action.from severely structured organisation to non-structured non-organisation.
  • from the Individual leader to every individual member.

An idea that deserves consideration here is the silent transformation of social experience maturing into social living. Experience can be organised, it needs to be organised for results. Living is experience integrating with existence. This is an inevitable process society undergoes to consolidate its experience. For instance,

─         Public conscience matures into codified law

─         Society gives up promiscuity in favour of marriage.

                                    ─         Arranged marriage gives way to love marriage.

                                    ─         Marriage matures into dissolution.

─         Closely preserved education at the top aristocratic level moves down to becoming universal education made compulsory.

─         Stationary man changes into globe trotter.

None of these is a unidimensional change. Placing ourselves at the period of Martin Luther we witness a rebel against the accumulating superstition of the church. It was around that period Shakespeare saw MIND was born in the common man and depicted the tribulations of its birth in Hamlet. The printing press of Gutenberg came as a technological advance that printed the Bible for the masses and converted half of Europe to Protestantism. Society advances on all fronts changing attitudes, discovering new resources, advancing technology giving new understanding to the individual about himself, etc.  Society is not static for a moment. Its facets are millions in number. To view the society as a living organism undergoing change as growth, development and evolution we see myriad phenomena of which the demise of the centralised organisation is one, the birth of the flat uncentralised ‘organisation' that is not an administered organisation but a self-sustaining institution is one.

87)       Public opinion has not yet become an institution in any country to have an impact on the government.

The phrase public opinion came into existence only about 150 years ago. Before that the public was not recognised as an entity, nor were they supposed to have an opinion. What the king said was implicitly accepted by the adoring public. Even at that time the power of the ruler entirely rested with the public sanction. That reality was overtaken by the appearance of the government or monarchy which was the creation of the public. Man becoming a slave of his own creation as Money, the monarchy eclipsed the population which made monarchy possible.

No doubt public opinion is a force and it makes a lot of audible noise.

As in the formula of energy - Energy, Force, Power, and Results - public opinion begins as the opinion of an energetic public. The energy will be recognised as Energy but it is far powerless to produce results.

  • Directed by the public will it becomes a force.
  • We hear of a strong public opinion making a pension fund withdraw its investment in a landmine producing company.
  • A CEO of a multi-billion dollar company was to retract his fabulous bonus he gave himself by the expressed outrage of the public.
  • We also hear that the greatest known public movements such as the Anti-Global Warming have never touched the attitude of the US Government.
  • A few hundred NGOs all over the world are intensely campaigning for the abolition of the nuclear arsenal with little effect.

It is true public opinion has become a Force to be reckoned with at some level but not a power to force governments to act.

  • Still, public opinion has all the endowments to be institutionalised in a country, if the right steps are taken.
  • A historian in commenting on women's suffrage in America said that they could have won it actually 70 years before it was in fact sanctioned. He added that the energy of the American women was engrossed in organising her house with the modern kitchen equipments that were flooding the market constantly.
  • India could have won her freedom soon after the First World War had she taken to armed uprising since the British did not honour their promise to grant freedom after the war. The Indian army mutinied in 1857 on a flimsy issue of pig's fat and there were only 100,000 Englishmen in the Indian population of 300 millions. It is one thing the power is in potential and it is another thing it actually yields results.

88)       When public passion approaches the level of an institution a Revolution breaks out.

Institutionalised public passion is culture. What is passion apart from it being energy? Energy is vital. When a little of the physical energy converts itself into vital energy or thought, it becomes passion. His effort to think or energise fails and the result is an outburst of passion. The body, the physical in our terminology, cannot think, cannot release any energy except physical energy. Physical energy is organised into skill at No.7. But there are intense moments where the body makes a supreme effort. The efforts fails subsiding into passion. An utterly physical man falling in love deeply when overcome with emotions for the lady desires to utter the words ‘I love you' restrained by circumstances. His speech fails him. He is moved to tears. Trying to say that he cannot live without her, he faints overcome with emotions. Should the lady deny him, he would die. If anyone tries to cross him, he would let his passion loose on him.

  • The deepest efforts of the body at its most intense moments become passion.

Nations rarely reach this point, unless one section grows oppressive of all the other sections and life reaches a point of no return. By this time the sensations of the body mature into physical emotions. Emotions in the mind organise into sentiments and find utterance in language as poetry. Emotions of the vital are saturated with energy which normally turn into courage, loyalty, chastity, integrity, etc. as they have the benefit of an organising vital mind (No.4) as well as being refined because the energy is vital. Emotions of the physical are coarse, dense, fit for folklore and folk poetry and are massive in their generation.

  • Massive crude energies devoid of a guiding Mind generate emotions that we call passion.

Such passions organise themselves into deeply set superstitions. They too can be institutionalised. Passion being passion, before it is institutionalised they release their energies as VIOLENCE. A revolution breaks out. The history of the French Revolution, pre-revolutionary Russia and the events of any nation poised for a Revolution will be described like this. Religious superstition precedes generally violent outbreak of Revolutions. Where such a superstition grows into belief it partly rationalises itself taking the edge off the revolutionary violence. In my view Pride and Prejudice fictionally represents how the maturity of Britain managed to sublimate the Revolution into evolution. Still the vehemence with which Elizabeth refused Darcy's proposal signifies that violent fervour.

90)       Usury is an institution.

            The native intelligence of Man has been the same since Man was born as a species, is one view. In his long varied history, he has created many wonders. From our view some stand out, even if the fact is every creation of Man is equally wonderful. Those who have studied the origin of Money and Language would have seen the real greatness of these institutions. They have brought to play powers that are to be seen nowhere.

            After the birth of Money, it showed that ability of being a source of wonder many times. Subtly perceptive people over the ages have discovered that Money multiplies in proportion to one's giving it away.

Credit is age-old. It is one such institution. At the bottom it is an arrangement that makes one man's survival and growth enabled by another man. It is a financial institution that makes possible the psychological, sociological and even spiritual unity of humankind. Man, particularly his ego, has been known to possess a special resource of ability in that,

  • He becomes the slave of the thing he has given birth to.
  • He makes a positive instrument a negative one.
  • He has the reputation of making language, a social instrument of unity; an occasion for bitter discord and disunity, as he is one who has converted the Individual divine within him into the separative, divisive Ego.

- Credit was invented to save an individual who lost his capacity for survival by the help of one whose capacity to survive was greater than he needed.

- In simple terms, it was an innovation to help the weak survive by the support of the strong.

Human nature which is resourcefully perceptive of the scope for its self-assertion and self-aggrandisement discovered that this same credit enables the strong to wipe out the weak in the guise of support.

One characteristic of non-moral neutral forces is not to stop acting as long as that action is possible, regardless of the fact whether that action is desirable or necessary.

Man's helping another with Money is not unselfish. He gets his reward in terms of what is known as interest. Religions have prohibited interest but it has come to stay. Usury, charging exorbitant interest, has enabled the lender to ruin the borrower. Lenders of the local community have thus grown into tyrants while lenders who are outsiders have been violently persecuted by the local people. Man's need for Money was always ‘great'. Man's need for greedy acquisition was always equally great. Religion and law, morals and ethics have little power of restraint over these forces. It has come to stay as a thriving institution. Money thus accumulated helped buy the Suez Canal and similar good things. Generally it has helped wipe out the dissipating weak. Whether it was helpful or harmful usury has remained with humankind as an institution for good or bad.

91)       Organisation losing its central authority becomes an institution.

Writing about the principles and powers of Organisation and Institution one can find any amount of material, but they come to an end sooner or later.  Should one attempt to distinguish one from the other, he enters into a creative zone of a society that never ceases to expand, each time with a touch of that evolutionary immanence. The above statement is one such from the point of authority, a topic that is less striking.

An organisation is mostly one of several systems that are made up of a chain of activities whose basic unit is an act. The inherent value of an organisation lies in the way two systems come together to enhance the powers of each, in addition to creating new powers. The parts of an organisation are visible; its source of power invisible like the emotional power of poetry. Stated in prose, an idea is comprehensible; put poetically, the words remain eternally in the memory of human experiences. An arrangement upgraded into organisation is like prose becoming poetry.

Central authority is external. It acts through a hierarchy, imposes uniformity of action, creates efficiency. That is organisation.

Individual authority is internal. It acts through values, urged by a desire to serve the community, takes efficiency to its human heights, distinguishes by its uniqueness of expression. It is self sustaining. It is institution.

  • A modern thinker said the change is from a pyramidal vertical hierarchy to a flat uncentralised self-regulating authority. His idea was received as an original addition to the growing body of human knowledge. The most striking example of this phenomenon is the creation of VISA whose efficiency has excelled anything that was known before while its reach is ever-widening.
  • Organisation is in the gross physical material plane. Its powers do not come from anywhere that can be met by the eye.
  • An institution is less visible to the eye.All its powers are from the psychological plane of the society.
  • It takes centuries for an organisation to mature into an institution.
  • Organisation and Institution are the expanded social version of a house that houses a home that is a family.
  • Organisation has been the mainspring of Social Development.
  • In England of today, we can say, Royalty is an institution that presides over Democracy that is an Organisation.

92)       An organisation becomes an organism when the institutionalized values become a subconscious organisation such as an instinct.

In an essential sense this theme is not directly related to the idea of institution. Still, because of its importance, it is mentioned here.

  • Man has lost the animal instinct to develop thinking in his Mind.
  • To gain at a higher level what is lost at a lower level is evolutionary progress.

Napoleon was a phenomenon, a genius recognised by his enemies. His strength lay in his masterful strategies to which his enemies fell a victim. The execution of those strategies depended on his phenomenal memory of one who lived on the spot. One of the rules of the theory is if a Truth holds good in general and in ONE particular, it will be valid in all particulars. Regaining the lost animal instinct at a higher than human plane is to be as efficient as the animal. It is evolution. Incidentally, it proves the rule that the higher includes the lower.

Organisation - Institution - Organism

Under the head Institution, we do not include the transition from institution into organism. This is not a phenomenon we observe in life. This is an evolutionary possibility not directly connected with our inquiry. Extremely dedicated Spiritual institutions have this scope in theory. If they exist, they will have the instinct of knowing what is happening anywhere in the world. With respect to the information fed into it, the Internet has this capacity. Human individuals, human organisations that are rooted in Spirit, have this possibility with respect to anything happening in the world. The human body has this capacity. The colour of the nails can tell us what someone has been eating in the last few months. So much it is integrated, but we are unaware of it.

Man once had twelve senses of which the five we have are the only ones left. He can recover the lost senses not as a nervous instinct but as an intuition of Mind. Workers handling a particular machine for years and being attached to it, have this sense about that machine. He may know that two days later a certain part will break. A machinist has developed that rapport in sensations with his machine.

80)       Corruption has institutionalized itself in India.

Looked at from an organised, structured, cultured society, corruption is wrong.

Outside the society corruption is an activity.

Corruption is impermissible as a value, not as an act.

Corruption is to go around a rule for a benefit.

The King of the 10th century felt all the income of his kingdom was his.

Nor did the population disagree, though they resented parting with it.

Those were days when aspiring to the throne was treason.

In a sense he who gave you physical protection owns the income of your physical labour.

Patronage was a privilege.

Men were valued by the height of patronage received or he is capable of conferring.

It was not only not wrong but a matter of pride.

Since then kings disciplined themselves by self-imposed law, restraint, culture, honour.

After that going back on those values was wrong, illegal, corruption, nepotism.

In Asia, the harem was an index of a king's eminence, its strength, his strength.

In Europe Christianity and prohibition of bigamy stood in the way, but the king trespassed into every marriage. It was tolerated, understood, acquiesced, welcomed, and received as an honour.

Theoretically corruption was a stage in any society to be overcome.

In India there was not only law but justice matured into Dharma.

Dharma is an exclusively Indian concept untranslatable in any other language as it is a national cultural value self-imposed by the king on himself.

It was observed more in the breach.

But the national atmosphere was so charged that kings of higher personal value were punished by Life - Life Response - when they transgressed it.

The Mahabharata was a symbol of fighting such an evil.

It was around the 9th century that India lost its evolutionary vigour.

The nation had not yet emerged as a territorial unity till 1857.

The Muslim invasion and the British conquest were the devices of Nature to unite the country.

In such periods of decline at the physical level, we see injustice rising at a rapid pace. At the same time the inherent organised subconscious values survive in family and rural life.

The Britisher came and introduced democratic behaviour, a very clean honest administration by men of honour and principle.

So, we see a subject nation suffering from cancer whose inherent cultural vitality is preserving precious values in pockets as well as in thin layers all over.

In 1947, freedom came which incidentally became freedom for corruption.

Even in 1930 a foreseeing statesman warned of a coming corrupt government even though he was a frontline Freedom Fighter.

There were the untouchables who were made constitutionally free.

Children born outside wedlock were a considerable percentage of the society, as castes were created on that basis too.

More than poverty, the social oppression sought an inverted relief.

The emerging abundance of prosperity being an avalanche, officers with a pittance of salaries could not deny themselves the benefit of it by corruption.

It is a stage no country's history has escaped.

Two observations can be made. 1) The inherent cultural values and the power structure of the constitution still existent in 2007 offer scope for its eradication. 2) Whenever the nation is overcoming the temptation, the new tradition thus springing up is so pure that one need not feel all is lost.

81)       Among the smugglers who have institutionalised law-breaking loyalty to each other, it has become an article of faith.

            An organisation is centrally managed by authority. An institution has no such centralised authority. It is self-managed and self-existent more like a family than like an office.

Office                                                               Family                       

 Governed by rules.                                    There are no rules but values expressed

                                                                    in family behaviour.   

Records are the lifeline of an office.             No record is kept for events of the family.

Infringement of rules is punished.               Failure is tolerated, sometimes frowned on,

                                                                    sometimes indulged.

One can join an office or leave it at              It is blood ties cannot be severed.

any time.

Has targets that must be achieved on         There are goals to which everyone is

pain of punishment.                                      inspired to move.

One is appointed to a job based on            One is born into a family.

certain qualifications.

An institution remains an institution whether it serves a good cause or a bad goal. Smuggling serves a wrong cause. It is based on law-breaking. It is worth noting that before law was born what we now call smuggling was trade. There was no law breaking as there was no law yet. Among the smugglers loyalty is an article of faith as there is only one punishment, drowning in the sea. Today man is law-abiding out of a developed conscience. Then, among the smugglers, one submits to LAW - the law of law-breaking - on pain of death. We say it is institutionalised as no one administers it. It is followed as culture among the smugglers from various parts. All have the same loyalty, secrecy, readiness to act which is a culture among smugglers of all nations.

The early pirates became Admirals later on. Smugglers on entering the Navy are found to be very efficient.

(Before an organisation such as bank or before trade was born as we now know it, they existed as an institution after a fashion. I am tempted to say that, in certain cases, the ORGANISATION is preceded as well as succeeded by a kind of institution.)

I speak of law-breaking that is institutionalised by the smugglers, as they cannot have an organisation centralised or not.                                     

82)       Every national discipline such as the queue habit is institutionalised in each nation.

In these modern days Indians have not learnt the queue habit. Self-discipline and national discipline are on different planes. Marriage is an institution in any country though the aspects of organisation of registering, recording are there. They are for national purposes and incidentally serve the individual. In speaking of institutions as different from organisation, it will serve our purpose if we have in mind that these institutions and organisations arise at all levels such as national, sectoral, community, caste, local neighbourhood, family, personal, industry, organisations such as political parties, trade unions, universities, etc. As there is a gradation of size (quantity), there is also a gradation of value (quality).  They can be subdivided as well-established, formative, unformed, etc. The term value and institution, custom and culture will find themselves stumbling upon several hurdles of language. Unless and until the field codifies these terms, we have to be satisfied with the spirit of these phenomena.

  • Hospitality is a value institutionalised in any nation.
  • Tax collection is an organisation.
  • Sunday sermons at the church can be understood as the organised surface of the institutionalised religion.
  • Family tradition is an institutionalised value.
  • Punctuality, though enforced by organisations, is an institutionalised value.
  • Honour is more a value than a custom. It cannot even be institutionalised in the sense it is more a personal value that a national custom.
  • Bargaining is a trade value that pervades all walks of life in India. In the West, it is non-existent in retail. They compensate it in the non-retail areas by demanding the rock bottom price when the product is in the buyers' market.
  • Rational thinking is there all over the West as an institutionalised mental value.
  • Perjury in the courts is non-existent in the West as the punishment is heavy. In India not only the witnesses but the lawyers and sometime judges do not stick to truth. Perjury is as much institutionalised here as corruption.
  • Etiquette was institutionalised in the royal courts in the early centuries.
  • Gallantry was another institutionalised value in the West in previous centuries.     

83)       Equality has become an institution in France, since the French Revolution.

            The concept of Equality, if it is fully in play and in practice, it is in France. No servant could be called servant in America even two or three centuries ago. They sit at the table with the family members. Surely it is the spirit of equality. This is the equality of the social man. A man who is successful, it does not matter how, is one the society approves of in America. It is the psychological man, the individual, who is accorded equal status in France. French Revolution came for liberty. They wisely recognised that liberty will richly flower in the context of equality. There is a further concept of fraternity.

The French are intellectual. The French Institute and the Sorbonne University have held aloft the intellectual flag of eminence for long. Still, it is true. The French language is far more precise than Spanish or English by virtue of its being an intellectual language. Mental development in one prevents anyone else from treating him unequally. Thus the Frenchman has come into his own. The national milieu is the sequence of the French Revolution. These additional factors enabled France to easily institutionalise equality of men better than in America.

Organisation and institution are not concepts of one level or one type. They admit grades by virtue of their size, complexity, age. Honour is a pronounced British value, though it was commenced because men were not sufficiently literate to write out a receipt in a trade to which people visit recurrently. Incapable of writing a receipt quickly, they resorted to the value of honour that has come to stay. This value has a personal, commercial, national, political amplitude. In 1947 when Mountbatten agreed to accept the post of Viceroy in Delhi, Attlee asked him how he was to cross the hurdle of Churchill in the House of Lords. Mountbatten had already taken a word of consent from Churchill. When Attlee was unconvinced, Mountbatten assured him ‘a word given is sacred'. It was true. As honour spreads horizontally and vertically, institutions of Liberty and Equality too extend in several nations. Only in France its institutionalisation has touched its native heights.

We know scientific thinking is a paramount mental value of the West. Science has not been merely institutionalised there; it has gone to a higher level of value.

Where Man is mentally undeveloped, rather before the birth of Mind in a community, Superstition was institutionalised in that community. Mind is a bar to a fertile soil of rich, illusive, imaginative superstition. Incidentally we do not see that our conceiving of God as Man is a superstition. To such people ‘God speaks in their language'! Even in the most backward autocratic nations, Man has the freedom of mobility, freedom to choose his profession, but it is a far cry from liberty becoming institutionalised.

84)       The best example of an institutional value is entrepreneurship in America.

When a value is institutionalised, it yields the greatest benefit to the community.

All nations in Europe became nation states in the 19th century.

Patriotism was the dominant emotion.

Everyone was eager to die for his nation.

Before the First World War, it was said the 40 years of peace created a tension in the nerves of the population across the nation. They were itching to fight. No wonder war broke out.

When Europe delighted in fighting, America delighted in production and that too organised production. They were fighting poverty. They had 34% of world's production while Britain and Germany claimed 7% and 5%. How was this miracle possible? Even the population at that period was not superior to Britain or Germany.

One value institutionalised is equal to two or three values organised. We do not have a scale to measure and compare the efficiency of organisation and institution.

America started not as a nation, not even a cohesive community. They dashed to the places where lands were available, gold was found or higher pay was offered. Nothing bound them to the soil. They came to America uprooting themselves from their native soil.

  • It was not family, not neighbourhood, not the native place that kept them to one place, for they had none of them. It was opportunity that beckoned.
  • He who goes after an opportunity is an adventurer, a higher state than the entrepreneur. When a man settles in a god-forsaken place, by definition, he is an entrepreneur.

- Thus entrepreneurship has come to stay in that country.

- It has touched all walks of life. Most students earned their tuition by working part time, an apprenticeship in entrepreneurship.

- Circumstances compelled them to venture on their own.

- In America employment in the government is a last resort whereas in India it is a coveted possession. For 200 posts of IAS officers, 400,000 take the exam which shows the popularity of a government job.

Entrepreneurship is the most valuable source for national production, not the government planned production. As it is institutionalised in America since its founding, there is no wonder she excels in productive wealth.

* Infinity, Eternity, Silence, Peace, Unity, Truth, Goodness,

   Knowledge, Power, Beauty, Love and Ananda.       


story | by Dr. Radut